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Gerenciando o Virtual box

Introduction

Introduction

As briefly mentioned in the section called “Alternative front-ends”, VBoxManage is
the command-line interface to VirtualBox. With it, you can completely
control VirtualBox from the command line of your host operating system.
VBoxManage supports all the features that the graphical user interface
gives you access to, but it supports a lot more than that. It exposes
really all the features of the virtualization engine, even those that
cannot (yet) be accessed from the GUI.

You will need to use the command line if you want to

  • use a different user interface than the main GUI (for example,
    VBoxSDL or the VBoxHeadless server);
  • control some of the more advanced and experimental
    configuration settings for a VM.

There are two main things to keep in mind when using
VBoxManage: First,
VBoxManage must always be used with a
specific “subcommand”, such as “list” or “createvm” or “startvm”. All the
subcommands that VBoxManage supports are
described in detail in Chapter 8, VBoxManage.

Second, most of these subcommands require that you specify a
particular virtual machine after the subcommand. There are two ways you
can do this:

  • You can specify the VM name, as it is shown in the VirtualBox
    GUI. Note that if that name contains spaces, then you must enclose the
    entire name in double quotes (as it is always required with command
    line arguments that contain spaces).For example:

    VBoxManage startvm "Windows XP"
  • You can specify the UUID, which is the internal unique
    identifier that VirtualBox uses to refer to the virtual machine.
    Assuming that the aforementioned VM called “Windows XP” has the UUID
    shown below, the following command has the same effect as the
    previous:

    VBoxManage startvm 670e746d-abea-4ba6-ad02-2a3b043810a5

You can type VBoxManage list vms to
have all currently registered VMs listed with all their settings,
including their respective names and UUIDs.

Some typical examples of how to control VirtualBox from the command
line are listed below:

  • To create a new virtual machine from the command line and
    immediately register it with VirtualBox, use
    VBoxManage createvm with the
    --register option,[35]like this:

    $ VBoxManage createvm --name "SUSE 10.2" --register
    VirtualBox Command Line Management Interface Version 4.1.14
    (C) 2005-2012 Oracle Corporation
    All rights reserved.
    
    Virtual machine 'SUSE 10.2' is created.
    UUID: c89fc351-8ec6-4f02-a048-57f4d25288e5
    Settings file: '/home/username/.VirtualBox/Machines/SUSE 10.2/SUSE 10.2.xml'

    As can be seen from the above output, a new virtual machine has
    been created with a new UUID and a new XML settings file.

  • To show the configuration of a particular VM, use
    VBoxManage showvminfo; see the section called “VBoxManage showvminfo” for details and an example.
  • To change settings while a VM is powered off, use
    VBoxManage modifyvm, e.g. as
    follows:

    VBoxManage modifyvm "Windows XP" --memory "512MB"

    For details, see the section called “VBoxManage modifyvm”.

  • To change the storage configuration (e.g. to add a storage
    controller and then a virtual disk), use VBoxManage
    storagectl
    and VBoxManage
    storageattach
    ; see the section called “VBoxManage storagectl” and the section called “VBoxManage storageattach” for details.
  • To control VM operation, use one of the following:

Commands overview

When running VBoxManage without parameters or when supplying an
invalid command line, the below syntax diagram will be shown. Note that
the output will be slightly different depending on the host platform; when
in doubt, check the output of VBoxManage
for the commands available on your particular host.

Usage:

VBoxManage [-v|--version]    print version number and exit
VBoxManage [-q|--nologo] ... suppress the logo

VBoxManage list [--long|-l] vms|runningvms|ostypes|hostdvds|hostfloppies|
                            bridgedifs|dhcpservers|hostinfo|
                            hostcpuids|hddbackends|hdds|dvds|floppies|
                            usbhost|usbfilters|systemproperties|extpacks

VBoxManage showvminfo       <uuid>|<name> [--details]
                            [--machinereadable]
VBoxManage showvminfo       <uuid>|<name> --log <idx>

VBoxManage registervm       <filename>

VBoxManage unregistervm     <uuid>|<name> [--delete]

VBoxManage createvm         --name <name>
                            [--ostype <ostype>]
                            [--register]
                            [--basefolder <path>]
                            [--uuid <uuid>]

VBoxManage modifyvm         <uuid|name>
                            [--name <name>]
                            [--ostype <ostype>]
                            [--memory <memorysize in MB>]
                            [--pagefusion on|off]
                            [--vram <vramsize in MB>]
                            [--acpi on|off]
                            [--ioapic on|off]
                            [--pae on|off]
                            [--hpet on|off]
                            [--hwvirtex on|off]
                            [--hwvirtexexcl on|off]
                            [--nestedpaging on|off]
                            [--largepages on|off]
                            [--vtxvpid on|off]
                            [--synthcpu on|off]
                            [--cpuidset <leaf> <eax> <ebx> <ecx> <edx>]
                            [--cpuidremove <leaf>]
                            [--cpuidremoveall]
                            [--hardwareuuid <uuid>]
                            [--cpus <number>]
                            [--cpuhotplug on|off]
                            [--plugcpu <id>]
                            [--unplugcpu <id>]
                            [--cpuexecutioncap <1-100>]
                            [--rtcuseutc on|off]
                            [--monitorcount <number>]
                            [--accelerate3d on|off]
                            [--firmware bios|efi|efi32|efi64]
                            [--chipset ich9|piix3]
                            [--bioslogofadein on|off]
                            [--bioslogofadeout on|off]
                            [--bioslogodisplaytime <msec>]
                            [--bioslogoimagepath <imagepath>]
                            [--biosbootmenu disabled|menuonly|messageandmenu]
                            [--biossystemtimeoffset <msec>]
                            [--biospxedebug on|off]
                            [--boot<1-4> none|floppy|dvd|disk|net>]
                            [--nic<1-N> none|null|nat|bridged|intnet|
                                        generic]
                            [--nictype<1-N> Am79C970A|Am79C973]
                            [--cableconnected<1-N> on|off]
                            [--nictrace<1-N> on|off]
                            [--nictracefile<1-N> <filename>]
                            [--nicproperty<1-N> name=[value]]
                            [--nicspeed<1-N> <kbps>]
                            [--nicbootprio<1-N> <priority>]
                            [--nicpromisc<1-N> deny|allow-vms|allow-all]
                            [--nicbandwidthgroup<1-N> none|<name>]
                            [--bridgeadapter<1-N> none|<devicename>]
                            [--intnet<1-N> <network name>]
                            [--natnet<1-N> <network>|default]
                            [--nicgenericdrv<1-N> <driver>
                            [--natsettings<1-N> [<mtu>],[<socksnd>],
                                                [<sockrcv>],[<tcpsnd>],
                                                [<tcprcv>]]
                            [--natpf<1-N> [<rulename>],tcp|udp,[<hostip>],
                                          <hostport>,[<guestip>],<guestport>]
                            [--natpf<1-N> delete <rulename>]
                            [--nattftpprefix<1-N> <prefix>]
                            [--nattftpfile<1-N> <file>]
                            [--nattftpserver<1-N> <ip>]
                            [--natbindip<1-N> <ip>
                            [--natdnspassdomain<1-N> on|off]
                            [--natdnsproxy<1-N> on|off]
                            [--natdnshostresolver<1-N> on|off]
                            [--nataliasmode<1-N> default|[log],[proxyonly],
                                                         [sameports]]
                            [--macaddress<1-N> auto|<mac>]
                            [--mouse ps2|usb|usbtablet
                            [--keyboard ps2|usb
                            [--uart<1-N> off|<I/O base> <IRQ>]
                            [--uartmode<1-N> disconnected|
                                             server <pipe>|
                                             client <pipe>|
                                             file <file>|
                                             <devicename>]
                            [--guestmemoryballoon <balloonsize in MB>]
                            [--gueststatisticsinterval <seconds>]
                            [--audio none|null|dsound|solaudio|oss|
                                     oss|coreaudio]
                            [--audiocontroller ac97|hda|sb16]
                            [--clipboard disabled|hosttoguest|guesttohost|
                                         bidirectional]
                            [--vrde on|off]
                            [--vrdeextpack default|<name>
                            [--vrdeproperty <name=[value]>]
                            [--vrdeport <hostport>]
                            [--vrdeaddress <hostip>]
                            [--vrdeauthtype null|external|guest]
                            [--vrdeauthlibrary default|<name>
                            [--vrdemulticon on|off]
                            [--vrdereusecon on|off]
                            [--vrdevideochannel on|off]
                            [--vrdevideochannelquality <percent>]
                            [--usb on|off]
                            [--usbehci on|off]
                            [--snapshotfolder default|<path>]
                            [--teleporter on|off]
                            [--teleporterport <port>]
                            [--teleporteraddress <address|empty>
                            [--teleporterpassword <password>]
                            [--teleporterpasswordfile  <file>|stdin]

VBoxManage clonevm          <uuid>|<name>
                            [--snapshot <uuid>|<name>]
                            [--mode machine|machineandchildren|all]
                            [--options link|keepallmacs|keepnatmacs|
                                       keepdisknames]
                            [--name <name>]
                            [--basefolder <basefolder>]
                            [--uuid <uuid>]
                            [--register]

VBoxManage import           <ovf/ova>
                            [--dry-run|-n]
                            [--options keepallmacs|keepnatmacs]
                            [more options]
                            (run with -n to have options displayed
                             for a particular OVF)

VBoxManage export           <machines> --output|-o <ovf/ova>
                            [--legacy09]
                            [--manifest]
                            [--vsys <number of virtual system>]
                                    [--product <product name>]
                                    [--producturl <product url>]
                                    [--vendor <vendor name>]
                                    [--vendorurl <vendor url>]
                                    [--version <version info>]
                                    [--eula <license text>]
                                    [--eulafile <filename>]

VBoxManage startvm          <uuid>|<name>...
                            [--type gui|sdl|headless]

VBoxManage controlvm        <uuid>|<name>
                            pause|resume|reset|poweroff|savestate|
                            acpipowerbutton|acpisleepbutton|
                            keyboardputscancode <hex> [<hex> ...]|
                            setlinkstate<1-N> on|off |
                            nic<1-N> null|nat|bridged|intnet|generic
                                     [<devicename>] |
                            nictrace<1-N> on|off
                            nictracefile<1-N> <filename>
                            nicproperty<1-N> name=[value]
                            natpf<1-N> [<rulename>],tcp|udp,[<hostip>],
                                          <hostport>,[<guestip>],<guestport>
                            natpf<1-N> delete <rulename>
                            guestmemoryballoon <balloonsize in MB>]
                            gueststatisticsinterval <seconds>]
                            usbattach <uuid>|<address> |
                            usbdetach <uuid>|<address> |
                            vrde on|off |
                            vrdeport <port> |
                            vrdeproperty <name=[value]> |
                            vrdevideochannelquality <percent>
                            setvideomodehint <xres> <yres> <bpp> [display] |
                            screenshotpng <file> [display] |
                            setcredentials <username> <password> <domain>
                                           [--allowlocallogon <yes|no>] |
                            teleport --host <name> --port <port>
                                   [--maxdowntime <msec>] [--password password]
                            plugcpu <id>
                            unplugcpu <id>
                            cpuexecutioncap <1-100>

VBoxManage discardstate     <uuid>|<name>

VBoxManage adoptstate       <uuid>|<name> <state_file>

VBoxManage snapshot         <uuid>|<name>
                            take <name> [--description <desc>] [--pause] |
                            delete <uuid>|<name> |
                            restore <uuid>|<name> |
                            restorecurrent |
                            edit <uuid>|<name>|--current
                                 [--name <name>]
                                 [--description <desc>] |
                            list [--details|--machinereadable]
                            showvminfo <uuid>|<name>

VBoxManage closemedium      disk|dvd|floppy <uuid>|<filename>
                            [--delete]

VBoxManage storageattach    <uuid|vmname>
                            --storagectl <name>
                            [--port <number>]
                            [--device <number>]
                            [--type dvddrive|hdd|fdd]
                            [--medium none|emptydrive|
                                      <uuid>|<filename>|host:<drive>|iscsi]
                            [--mtype normal|writethrough|immutable|shareable|
                                     readonly|multiattach]
                            [--comment <text>]
                            [--setuuid <uuid>]
                            [--setparentuuid <uuid>]
                            [--passthrough on|off]
                            [--tempeject on|off]
                            [--nonrotational on|off]
                            [--bandwidthgroup <name>]
                            [--forceunmount]
                            [--server <name>|<ip>]
                            [--target <target>]
                            [--tport <port>]
                            [--lun <lun>]
                            [--encodedlun <lun>]
                            [--username <username>]
                            [--password <password>]
                            [--intnet]

VBoxManage storagectl       <uuid|vmname>
                            --name <name>
                            [--add ide|sata|scsi|floppy|sas]
                            [--controller LSILogic|LSILogicSAS|BusLogic|
                                          IntelAHCI|PIIX3|PIIX4|ICH6|I82078]
                            [--sataideemulation<1-4> <1-30>]
                            [--sataportcount <1-30>]
                            [--hostiocache on|off]
                            [--bootable on|off]
                            [--remove]

VBoxManage bandwidthctl     <uuid|vmname>
                            --name <name>
                            [--add disk|network]
                            [--limit <megabytes per second>
                            [--delete]

VBoxManage showhdinfo       <uuid>|<filename>

VBoxManage createhd         --filename <filename>
                            --size <megabytes>|--sizebyte <bytes>
                            [--format VDI|VMDK|VHD] (default: VDI)
                            [--variant Standard,Fixed,Split2G,Stream,ESX]

VBoxManage modifyhd         <uuid>|<filename>
                            [--type normal|writethrough|immutable|shareable|
                                    readonly|multiattach]
                            [--autoreset on|off]
                            [--compact]
                            [--resize <megabytes>|--resizebyte <bytes>]

VBoxManage clonehd          <uuid>|<filename> <uuid>|<outputfile>
                            [--format VDI|VMDK|VHD|RAW|<other>]
                            [--variant Standard,Fixed,Split2G,Stream,ESX]
                            [--existing]

VBoxManage convertfromraw   <filename> <outputfile>
                            [--format VDI|VMDK|VHD]
                            [--variant Standard,Fixed,Split2G,Stream,ESX]
                            [--uuid <uuid>
VBoxManage convertfromraw   stdin <outputfile> <bytes>
                            [--format VDI|VMDK|VHD]
                            [--variant Standard,Fixed,Split2G,Stream,ESX]
                            [--uuid <uuid>

VBoxManage getextradata     global|<uuid>|<name>
                            <key>|enumerate

VBoxManage setextradata     global|<uuid>|<name>
                            <key>
                            [<value>] (no value deletes key)

VBoxManage setproperty      machinefolder default|<folder> |
                            vrdeauthlibrary default|<library> |
                            websrvauthlibrary default|null|<library> |
                            vrdeextpack null|<library> |
                            loghistorycount <value>

VBoxManage usbfilter        add <index,0-N>
                            --target <uuid>|<name>|global
                            --name <string>
                            --action ignore|hold (global filters only)
                            [--active yes|no] (yes)
                            [--vendorid <XXXX>] (null)
                            [--productid <XXXX>] (null)
                            [--revision <IIFF>] (null)
                            [--manufacturer <string>] (null)
                            [--product <string>] (null)
                            [--remote yes|no] (null, VM filters only)
                            [--serialnumber <string>] (null)
                            [--maskedinterfaces <XXXXXXXX>]

VBoxManage usbfilter        modify <index,0-N>
                            --target <uuid>|<name>|global
                            [--name <string>]
                            [--action ignore|hold] (global filters only)
                            [--active yes|no]
                            [--vendorid <XXXX>|""]
                            [--productid <XXXX>|""]
                            [--revision <IIFF>|""]
                            [--manufacturer <string>|""]
                            [--product <string>|""]
                            [--remote yes|no] (null, VM filters only)
                            [--serialnumber <string>|""]
                            [--maskedinterfaces <XXXXXXXX>]

VBoxManage usbfilter        remove <index,0-N>
                            --target <uuid>|<name>|global

VBoxManage sharedfolder     add <vmname>|<uuid>
                            --name <name> --hostpath <hostpath>
                            [--transient] [--readonly] [--automount]

VBoxManage sharedfolder     remove <vmname>|<uuid>
                            --name <name> [--transient]

VBoxManage debugvm          <uuid>|<name>
                            dumpguestcore --filename <name> |
                            info <item> [args] |
                            injectnmi |
                            log [--release|--debug] <settings> ...|
                            logdest [--release|--debug] <settings> ...|
                            logflags [--release|--debug] <settings> ...|
                            osdetect |
                            osinfo |
                            getregisters [--cpu <id>] <reg>|all ... |
                            setregisters [--cpu <id>] <reg>=<value> ... |
                            statistics [--reset] [--pattern <pattern>]
                            [--descriptions]

VBoxManage metrics          list [*|host|<vmname> [<metric_list>]]
                                                 (comma-separated)

VBoxManage metrics          setup
                            [--period <seconds>] (default: 1)
                            [--samples <count>] (default: 1)
                            [--list]
                            [*|host|<vmname> [<metric_list>]]

VBoxManage metrics          query [*|host|<vmname> [<metric_list>]]

VBoxManage metrics          enable
                            [--list]
                            [*|host|<vmname> [<metric_list>]]

VBoxManage metrics          disable
                            [--list]
                            [*|host|<vmname> [<metric_list>]]

VBoxManage metrics          collect
                            [--period <seconds>] (default: 1)
                            [--samples <count>] (default: 1)
                            [--list]
                            [--detach]
                            [*|host|<vmname> [<metric_list>]]

VBoxManage dhcpserver       add|modify --netname <network_name> |
                            [--ip <ip_address>
                            --netmask <network_mask>
                            --lowerip <lower_ip>
                            --upperip <upper_ip>]
                            [--enable | --disable]

VBoxManage dhcpserver       remove --netname <network_name> |

VBoxManage extpack          install [--replace] <tarball> |
                            uninstall [--force] <name> |
                            cleanup

Each time VBoxManage is invoked, only one command can be executed.
However, a command might support several subcommands which then can be
invoked in one single call. The following sections provide detailed
reference information on the different commands.

VBoxManage list

The list command gives relevant
information about your system and information about VirtualBox’s current
settings.

The following subcommands are available with
VBoxManage list:

  • vms lists all virtual
    machines currently registered with VirtualBox. By default this
    displays a compact list with each VM’s name and UUID; if you also
    specify --long or
    -l, this will be a detailed list as
    with the showvminfo command (see
    below).
  • runningvms lists all
    currently running virtual machines by their unique identifiers
    (UUIDs) in the same format as with
    vms.
  • ostypes lists all guest
    operating systems presently known to VirtualBox, along with the
    identifiers used to refer to them with the
    modifyvm command.
  • hostdvds,
    hostfloppies, respectively, list
    DVD, floppy, bridged networking and host-only networking interfaces
    on the host, along with the name used to access them from within
    VirtualBox.
  • bridgedifs,
    hostonlyifs and
    dhcpservers, respectively, list
    bridged network interfaces, host-only network interfaces and DHCP
    servers currently available on the host. Please see Chapter 6, Virtual networking for details on these.
  • hostinfo displays information
    about the host system, such as CPUs, memory size and operating
    system version.
  • hostcpuids dumps the CPUID
    parameters for the host CPUs. This can be used for a more fine
    grained analyis of the host’s virtualization capabilities.
  • hddbackends lists all known
    virtual disk back-ends of VirtualBox. For each such format (such as
    VDI, VMDK or RAW), this lists the back-end’s capabilities and
    configuration.
  • hdds,
    dvds and
    floppies all give you information
    about virtual disk images currently in use by VirtualBox, including
    all their settings, the unique identifiers (UUIDs) associated with
    them by VirtualBox and all files associated with them. This is the
    command-line equivalent of the Virtual Media Manager; see the section called “The Virtual Media Manager”.
  • usbhost supplies information
    about USB devices attached to the host, notably information useful
    for constructing USB filters and whether they are currently in use
    by the host.
  • usbfilters lists all global
    USB filters registered with VirtualBox — that is, filters for
    devices which are accessible to all virtual machines — and displays
    the filter parameters.
  • systemproperties displays
    some global VirtualBox settings, such as minimum and maximum guest
    RAM and virtual hard disk size, folder settings and the current
    authentication library in use.
  • extpacks displays all
    VirtualBox extension packs currently installed; see the section called “Installing VirtualBox and extension packs” and the section called “VBoxManage extpack” for more information.

VBoxManage showvminfo

The showvminfo command shows
information about a particular virtual machine. This is the same
information as VBoxManage list vms --long
would show for all virtual machines.

You will get information similar to the following:

$ VBoxManage showvminfo "Windows XP"
VirtualBox Command Line Management Interface Version 4.1.14
(C) 2005-2012 Oracle Corporation
All rights reserved.

Name:            Windows XP
Guest OS:        Other/Unknown
UUID:            1bf3464d-57c6-4d49-92a9-a5cc3816b7e7
Config file:     /home/username/.VirtualBox/Machines/Windows XP/Windows XP.xml
Memory size:     512MB
VRAM size:       12MB
Number of CPUs:  2
Synthetic Cpu:   off
Boot menu mode:  message and menu
Boot Device (1): DVD
Boot Device (2): HardDisk
Boot Device (3): Not Assigned
Boot Device (4): Not Assigned
ACPI:            on
IOAPIC:          on
PAE:             on
Time offset:     0 ms
Hardw. virt.ext: on
Hardw. virt.ext exclusive: on
Nested Paging:   on
VT-x VPID:       off
State:           powered off (since 2009-10-20T14:52:19.000000000)
Monitor count:   1
3D Acceleration: off
2D Video Acceleration: off
Teleporter Enabled: off
Teleporter Port: 0
Teleporter Address:
Teleporter Password:
Storage Controller      (0): IDE Controller
Storage Controller Type (0): PIIX4
Storage Controller      (1): Floppy Controller 1
Storage Controller Type (1): I82078
IDE Controller (0, 0): /home/user/windows.vdi (UUID: 46f6e53a-4557-460a-9b95-68b0f17d744b)
IDE Controller (0, 1): /home/user/openbsd-cd46.iso (UUID: 4335e162-59d3-4512-91d5-b63e94eebe0b)
Floppy Controller 1 (0, 0): /home/user/floppy.img (UUID: 62ac6ccb-df36-42f2-972e-22f836368137)
NIC 1:           disabled
NIC 2:           disabled
NIC 3:           disabled
NIC 4:           disabled
NIC 5:           disabled
NIC 6:           disabled
NIC 7:           disabled
NIC 8:           disabled
UART 1:          disabled
UART 2:          disabled
Audio:           disabled (Driver: Unknown)
Clipboard Mode:  Bidirectional
VRDE:            disabled
USB:             disabled

USB Device Filters:
<none>

Shared folders:
<none>

Statistics update:  disabled

VBoxManage registervm / unregistervm

The registervm command allows you
to import a virtual machine definition in an XML file into VirtualBox. The
machine must not conflict with one already registered in VirtualBox and it
may not have any hard or removable disks attached. It is advisable to
place the definition file in the machines folder before registering
it.

Note

When creating a new virtual machine with
VBoxManage createvm (see below), you
can directly specify the --register
option to avoid having to register it separately.

The unregistervm command
unregisters a virtual machine. If
--delete is also specified, the following
files will automatically be deleted as well:

  1. all hard disk image files, including differencing files, which
    are used by the machine and not shared with other machines;
  2. saved state files that the machine created, if any (one if the
    machine was in “saved” state and one for each online
    snapshot);
  3. the machine XML file and its backups;
  4. the machine log files, if any;
  5. the machine directory, if it is empty after having deleted all
    the above.

VBoxManage createvm

This command creates a new XML virtual machine definition
file.

The --name <name> parameter
is required and must specify the name of the machine. Since this name is
used by default as the file name of the settings file (with the extension
.xml) and the machine folder (a subfolder
of the .VirtualBox/Machines folder), it
must conform to your host operating system’s requirements for file name
specifications. If the VM is later renamed, the file and folder names will
change automatically.

However, if the --basefolder
<path>
option is used, the machine folder will be
named <path>. In this case, the
names of the file and the folder will not change if the virtual machine is
renamed.

By default, this command only creates the XML file without
automatically registering the VM with your VirtualBox installation. To
register the VM instantly, use the optional
--register option, or run
VBoxManage registervm separately
afterwards.

VBoxManage modifyvm

This command changes the properties of a registered virtual machine
which is not running. Most of the properties that this command makes
available correspond to the VM settings that VirtualBox graphical user
interface displays in each VM’s “Settings” dialog; these were described in
Chapter 3, Configuring virtual machines. Some of the more advanced settings,
however, are only available through the
VBoxManage interface.

These commands require that the machine is powered off (neither
running nor in “saved” state). Some machine settings can also be changed
while a machine is running; those settings will then have a corresponding
subcommand with the VBoxManage controlvm
subcommand (see the section called “VBoxManage controlvm”).

General settings

The following general settings are available through
VBoxManage modifyvm:

  • --name <name>: This
    changes the VM’s name and possibly renames the internal virtual
    machine files, as described with VBoxManage
    createvm
    above.
  • --ostype <ostype>:
    This specifies what guest operating system is supposed to run in
    the VM. To learn about the various identifiers that can be used
    here, use VBoxManage list
    ostypes
    .
  • --memory
    <memorysize>
    : This sets the amount of RAM,
    in MB, that the virtual machine should allocate for itself from
    the host. See the remarks in the section called “Creating your first virtual machine” for
    more information.
  • --vram <vramsize>:
    This sets the amount of RAM that the virtual graphics card should
    have. See the section called “Display settings” for details.
  • --acpi on|off;
    --ioapic on|off: These two
    determine whether the VM should have ACPI and I/O APIC support,
    respectively; see the section called “”Motherboard” tab” for
    details.
  • --hardwareuuid
    <uuid>
    : The UUID presented to the guest via
    memory tables (DMI/SMBIOS), hardware and guest properties. By
    default this is the same as the VM uuid. Useful when cloning a VM.
    Teleporting takes care of this automatically.
  • --cpus <cpucount>:
    This sets the number of virtual CPUs for the virtual machine (see
    the section called “”Processor” tab”). If CPU hot-plugging is
    enabled (see below), this then sets the
    maximum number of virtual CPUs that can be
    plugged into the virtual machines.
  • --rtcuseutc on|off: This
    option lets the real-time clock (RTC) operate in UTC time (see
    the section called “”Motherboard” tab”).
  • --cpuhotplug on|off: This
    enables CPU hot-plugging. When enabled, virtual CPUs can be added
    to and removed from a virtual machine while it is running. See
    the section called “CPU hot-plugging” for more information.
  • --plugcpu|unplugcpu
    <id>
    : If CPU hot-plugging is enabled (see
    above), this adds a virtual CPU to the virtual machines (or
    removes one). <id>
    specifies the index of the virtual CPU to be added or removed and
    must be a number from 0 to the maximum no. of CPUs configured with
    the --cpus option. CPU 0 can
    never be removed.
  • --cpuexecutioncap
    <1-100>
    : This setting controls how much cpu
    time a virtual CPU can use. A value of 50 implies a single virtual
    CPU can use up to 50% of a single host CPU.
  • --synthcpu on|off: This
    setting determines whether VirtualBox will expose a synthetic CPU
    to the guest to allow live migration between host systems that
    differ significantly.
  • --pae on|off: This
    enables/disables PAE (see the section called “”Processor” tab”).
  • --hpet on|off: This
    enables/disables a High Precision Event Timer (HPET) which can
    replace the legacy system timers. This is turned off by default.
    Note that Windows supports a HPET only from Vista onwards.
  • --hwvirtex on|off: This
    enables or disables the use of hardware virtualization extensions
    (Intel VT-x or AMD-V) in the processor of your host system; see
    the section called “Hardware vs. software virtualization”.
  • --hwvirtexexcl on|off: This
    specifies whether VirtualBox will make exclusive use of the
    hardware virtualization extensions (Intel VT-x or AMD-V) in the
    processor of your host system; see the section called “Hardware vs. software virtualization”. If
    you wish to simultaneously share these extensions with other
    hypervisors, then you must disable this setting. Doing so has
    negative performance implications.
  • --nestedpaging on|off: If
    hardware virtualization is enabled, this additional setting
    enables or disables the use of the nested paging feature in the
    processor of your host system; see the section called “Hardware vs. software virtualization”.
  • --largepages on|off: If
    hardware virtualization and nested paging are
    enabled, for Intel VT-x only, an additional performance
    improvement of up to 5% can be obtained by enabling this setting.
    This causes the hypervisor to use large pages to reduce TLB use
    and overhead.
  • --vtxvpid on|off: If
    hardware virtualization is enabled, for Intel VT-x only, this
    additional setting enables or disables the use of the tagged TLB
    (VPID) feature in the processor of your host system; see the section called “Hardware vs. software virtualization”.
  • --accelerate3d on|off: This
    enables, if the Guest Additions are installed, whether hardware 3D
    acceleration should be available; see the section called “Hardware 3D acceleration (OpenGL and Direct3D 8/9)”.
  • You can influence the BIOS logo that is displayed when a
    virtual machine starts up with a number of settings. Per default,
    a VirtualBox logo is displayed.With --bioslogofadein
    on|off
    and --bioslogofadeout
    on|off
    , you can determine whether the logo should
    fade in and out, respectively.With --bioslogodisplaytime
    <msec>
    you can set how long the logo should
    be visible, in milliseconds.

    With --bioslogoimagepath
    <imagepath>
    you can, if you are so
    inclined, replace the image that is shown, with your own logo. The
    image must be an uncompressed 256 color BMP file.

  • --biosbootmenu
    disabled|menuonly|messageandmenu
    : This specifies
    whether the BIOS allows the user to select a temporary boot
    device. menuonly suppresses the
    message, but the user can still press F12 to select a temporary
    boot device.
  • --boot<1-4>
    none|floppy|dvd|disk|net
    : This specifies the boot
    order for the virtual machine. There are four “slots”, which the
    VM will try to access from 1 to 4, and for each of which you can
    set a device that the VM should attempt to boot from.
  • --snapshotfolder
    default|<path>
    : This allows you to specify
    the folder in which snapshots will be kept for a virtual
    machine.
  • --firmware efi|bios:
    Specifies which firmware is used to boot particular virtual
    machine: EFI or BIOS. Use EFI only if your fully understand what
    you’re doing.
  • --guestmemoryballoon
    <size>
    sets the default size of the guest
    memory balloon, that is, memory allocated by the VirtualBox Guest
    Additions from the guest operating system and returned to the
    hypervisor for re-use by other virtual machines. <size> must
    be specified in megabytes. The default size is 0 megabytes. For
    details, see the section called “Memory ballooning”.

Networking settings

The following networking settings are available through
VBoxManage modifyvm. With all these
settings, the decimal number directly following the option name (“1-N”
in the list below) specifies the virtual network adapter whose settings
should be changed.

  • --nic<1-N>
    none|null|nat|bridged|intnet|hostonly|generic
    : With
    this, you can set, for each of the VM’s virtual network cards,
    what type of networking should be available. They can be not
    present (none), not connected to
    the host (null), use network
    address translation (nat),
    bridged networking (bridged) or
    communicate with other virtual machines using internal networking
    (intnet), host-only networking
    (hostonly), or access rarely used
    sub-modes (generic).
    These options correspond
    to the modes which are described in detail in the section called “Introduction to networking modes”.
  • --nictype<1-N>
    Am79C970A|Am79C973|82540EM|82543GC|82545EM|virtio
    :
    This allows you, for each of the VM’s virtual network cards, to
    specify which networking hardware VirtualBox presents to the
    guest; see the section called “Virtual networking hardware”.
  • --cableconnected<1-N>
    on|off
    : This allows you to temporarily disconnect
    a virtual network interface, as if a network cable had been pulled
    from a real network card. This might be useful for resetting
    certain software components in the VM.
  • With the “nictrace” options, you can optionally trace
    network traffic by dumping it to a file, for debugging
    purposes.With --nictrace<1-N>
    on|off
    , you can enable network tracing for a
    particular virtual network card.If enabled, you must specify with
    --nictracefile<1-N>
    <filename>
    what file the trace should be
    logged to.
  • --bridgeadapter<1-N>
    none|<devicename>
    : If bridged networking
    has been enabled for a virtual network card (see the
    --nic option above; otherwise
    this setting has no effect), use this option to specify which host
    interface the given virtual network interface will use. For
    details, please see the section called “Bridged networking”.
  • --hostonlyadapter<1-N>
    none|<devicename>
    : If host-only networking
    has been enabled for a virtual network card (see the –nic option
    above; otherwise this setting has no effect), use this option to
    specify which host-only networking interface the given virtual
    network interface will use. For details, please see the section called “Host-only networking”.
  • --intnet<1-N>
    network
    : If internal networking has been enabled
    for a virtual network card (see the
    --nic option above; otherwise
    this setting has no effect), use this option to specify the name
    of the internal network (see the section called “Internal networking”).
  • --macaddress<1-N>
    auto|<mac>
    : With this option you can set
    the MAC address of the virtual network card. Normally, each
    virtual network card is assigned a random address by VirtualBox at
    VM creation.
  • --nicgenericdrv<1-N>
    <backend driver>
    : If generic networking has been
    enabled for a virtual network card (see the
    --nic option above; otherwise
    this setting has no effect), this mode allows you to access
    rarely used networking sub-modes, such as VDE network or UDP Tunnel.
  • --nicproperty<1-N>
    <paramname>="paramvalue"
    :
    This option, in combination with “nicgenericdrv” allows you to
    pass parameters to rarely-used network backends.Those parameters are backend engine-specific, and are different
    between UDP Tunnel and the VDE backend drivers. For example,
    please see the section called “UDP Tunnel networking”.

NAT Networking settings.

The following NAT networking settings are available through
VBoxManage modifyvm. With all these
settings, the decimal number directly following the option name (“1-N”
in the list below) specifies the virtual network adapter whose
settings should be changed.

Serial port, audio, clipboard, remote desktop and USB
settings

The following other hardware settings are available through
VBoxManage modifyvm:

  • --uart<1-N> off|<I/O base>
    <IRQ>
    : With this option you can configure
    virtual serial ports for the VM; see the section called “Serial ports” for an introduction.
  • --uartmode<1-N>
    <arg>
    : This setting controls how VirtualBox
    connects a given virtual serial port (previously configured with
    the --uartX setting, see above)
    to the host on which the virtual machine is running. As described
    in detail in the section called “Serial ports”, for each such port,
    you can specify <arg> as
    one of the following options:

    • disconnected: Even
      though the serial port is shown to the guest, it has no
      “other end” — like a real COM port without a cable.
    • server
      <pipename>
      : On a Windows host, this
      tells VirtualBox to create a named pipe on the host named
      <pipename> and
      connect the virtual serial device to it. Note that Windows
      requires that the name of a named pipe begin with
      \\.\pipe\.On a Linux host, instead of a named pipe, a local
      domain socket is used.
    • client
      <pipename>
      : This operates just like
      server ..., except that the
      pipe (or local domain socket) is not created by VirtualBox,
      but assumed to exist already.
    • <devicename>:
      If, instead of the above, the device name of a physical
      hardware serial port of the host is specified, the virtual
      serial port is connected to that hardware port. On a Windows
      host, the device name will be a COM port such as
      COM1; on a Linux host, the
      device name will look like
      /dev/ttyS0. This allows you
      to “wire” a real serial port to a virtual machine.
  • --audio none|null|oss: With
    this option, you can set whether the VM should have audio
    support.
  • --clipboard
    disabled|hosttoguest|guesttohost|bidirectional
    :
    With this setting, you can select whether the guest operating
    system’s clipboard should be shared with the host; see the section called “General settings”. This requires that the Guest
    Additions be installed in the virtual machine.
  • --monitorcount
    <count>
    : This enables multi-monitor
    support; see the section called “Display settings”.
  • --usb on|off: This option
    enables or disables the VM’s virtual USB controller; see the section called “USB settings” for details.
  • --usbehci on|off: This
    option enables or disables the VM’s virtual USB 2.0 controller;
    see the section called “USB settings” for details.

Remote machine settings

The following settings that affect remote machine behavior are
available through VBoxManage
modifyvm
:

  • --vrde on|off: With the
    VirtualBox graphical user interface, this enables or disables the
    VirtualBox remote desktop extension (VRDE) server. Note that if
    you are using VBoxHeadless (see
    the section called “VBoxHeadless, the remote desktop server”), VRDE is enabled by
    default.
  • --vrdeport
    default|<ports>
    : A port or a range of ports
    the VRDE server can bind to; “default” or “0” means port 3389, the
    standard port for RDP. You can specify a comma-separated list of
    ports or ranges of ports. Use a dash between two port numbers to
    specify a range. The VRDE server will bind to one of available ports from the specified
    list. Only one machine can use a given port at a time. For
    example, the option --vrdeport
    5000,5010-5012
    will tell the server to bind to
    one of following ports: 5000, 5010, 5011 or 5012.
  • --vrdeaddress <IP
    address>
    : The IP address of the host network
    interface the VRDE server will bind to. If specified, the server
    will accept connections only on the specified host network
    interface.
  • --vrdeauthtype
    null|external|guest
    : This allows you to choose
    whether and how authorization will be performed; see the section called “RDP authentication” for details.
  • --vrdemulticon on|off: This
    enables multiple connections to the same VRDE server, if the
    server supports this feature; see the section called “Multiple connections to the VRDP server”.
  • --vrdereusecon on|off: This
    specifies the VRDE server behavior when multiple connections are
    disabled. When this option is enabled, the server will allow a new
    client to connect and will drop the existing connection. When this
    option is disabled (this is the default setting), a new connection
    will not be accepted if there is already a client connected to the
    server.
  • --vrdevideochannel on|off:
    This enables video redirection, if it is supported by the VRDE
    server; see the section called “VRDP video redirection”.
  • --vrdevideochannelquality
    <percent>
    : Sets the image quality for video
    redirection; see the section called “VRDP video redirection”.

Teleporting settings

With the following commands for VBoxManage
modifyvm
you can configure a machine to be a target for
teleporting. See the section called “Teleporting” for an
introduction.

  • --teleporter on|off: With
    this setting you turn on or off whether a machine waits for a
    teleporting request to come in on the network when it is started.
    If “on”, when the machine is started, it does not boot the virtual
    machine as it would normally; instead, it then waits for a
    teleporting request to come in on the port and address listed with
    the next two parameters.
  • --teleporterport
    <port>
    , --teleporteraddress
    <address>
    : these must be used with
    –teleporter and tell the virtual machine on which port and
    address it should listen for a teleporting request from another
    virtual machine. <port> can
    be any free TCP/IP port number (e.g. 6000);
    <address> can be any IP
    address or hostname and specifies the TCP/IP socket to bind to.
    The default is “0.0.0.0”, which means any address.
  • --teleporterpassword
    <password>
    : if this optional argument is
    given, then the teleporting request will only succeed if the
    source machine specifies the same password as the one given with
    this command.
  • --teleporterpasswordfile
    <password>
    : if this optional argument is
    given, then the teleporting request will only succeed if the
    source machine specifies the same password as the one specified
    in the file give with this command. Use stdin
    to read the password from stdin.
  • --cpuid <leaf> <eax> <ebx>
    <ecx> <edx>
    : Advanced users can use
    this command before a teleporting operation to restrict the
    virtual CPU capabilities that VirtualBox presents to the guest
    operating system. This must be run on both the source and the
    target machines involved in the teleporting and will then modify
    what the guest sees when it executes the
    CPUID machine instruction. This
    might help with misbehaving applications that wrongly assume that
    certain CPU capabilities are present. The meaning of the
    parameters is hardware dependent; please refer to the AMD or Intel
    processor manuals.

VBoxManage clonevm

This command creates a full or linked copy of an existing virtual
machine.

The clonevm subcommand takes at
least the name of the virtual machine which should be cloned. The following
additional settings can be used to further configure the clone VM
operation:

  • --snapshot <uuid>|<name>:
    Select a specific snapshot where the clone operation should refer
    to. Default is referring to the current state.
  • --mode machine|machineandchildren|all:
    Selects the cloning mode of the operation. If
    machine is selected (the default),
    the current state of the VM without any snapshots is cloned. In the
    machineandchildren mode the snapshot
    provided by --snapshot and all
    child snapshots are cloned. If all
    is the selected mode all snapshots and the current state are cloned.
  • --options link|keepallmacs|keepnatmacs|keepdisknames:
    Allows additional fine tuning of the clone operation. The first
    option defines that a linked clone should be created, which is
    only possible for a machine clone from a snapshot. The next two
    options allow to define how the MAC addresses of every virtual
    network card should be handled. They can either be reinitialized
    (the default), left unchanged
    (keepallmacs) or left unchanged
    when the network type is NAT
    (keepnatmacs). If you add
    keepdisknames all new disk images
    are called like the original once, otherwise they are
    renamed.
  • --name <name>: Select a
    new name for the new virtual machine. Default is “Original Name
    Clone”.
  • --basefolder <basefolder>:
    Select the folder where the new virtual machine configuration should
    be saved in.
  • --uuid <uuid>:
    Select the UUID the new VM should have. This id has to be unique in
    the VirtualBox instance this clone should be registered. Default is
    creating a new UUID.
  • --register:
    Automatically register the new clone in this VirtualBox
    installation. If you manually want register the new VM later, see
    the section called “VBoxManage registervm / unregistervm” for instructions how to do
    so.

VBoxManage import

This command imports a virtual appliance in OVF format by copying
the virtual disk images and creating virtual machines in VirtualBox. See
the section called “Importing and exporting virtual machines” for an introduction to appliances.

The import subcommand takes at
least the path name of an OVF file as input and expects the disk images,
if needed, in the same directory as the OVF file. A lot of additional
command-line options are supported to control in detail what is being
imported and modify the import parameters, but the details depend on the
content of the OVF file.

It is therefore recommended to first run the import subcommand with
the --dry-run or
-n option. This will then print a
description of the appliance’s contents to the screen how it would be
imported into VirtualBox, together with the optional command-line options
to influence the import behavior.

As an example, here is the screen output with a sample appliance
containing a Windows XP guest:

VBoxManage import WindowsXp.ovf --dry-run
Interpreting WindowsXp.ovf...
OK.
Virtual system 0:
 0: Suggested OS type: "WindowsXP"
    (change with "--vsys 0 --ostype <type>"; use "list ostypes" to list all)
 1: Suggested VM name "Windows XP Professional_1"
    (change with "--vsys 0 --vmname <name>")
 3: Number of CPUs: 1
    (change with "--vsys 0 --cpus <n>")
 4: Guest memory: 956 MB (change with "--vsys 0 --memory <MB>")
 5: Sound card (appliance expects "ensoniq1371", can change on import)
    (disable with "--vsys 0 --unit 5 --ignore")
 6: USB controller
    (disable with "--vsys 0 --unit 6 --ignore")
 7: Network adapter: orig bridged, config 2, extra type=bridged
 8: Floppy
    (disable with "--vsys 0 --unit 8 --ignore")
 9: SCSI controller, type BusLogic
    (change with "--vsys 0 --unit 9 --scsitype {BusLogic|LsiLogic}";
    disable with "--vsys 0 --unit 9 --ignore")
10: IDE controller, type PIIX4
    (disable with "--vsys 0 --unit 10 --ignore")
11: Hard disk image: source image=WindowsXp.vmdk,
      target path=/home/user/disks/WindowsXp.vmdk, controller=9;channel=0
    (change controller with "--vsys 0 --unit 11 --controller <id>";
    disable with "--vsys 0 --unit 11 --ignore")

As you can see, the individual configuration items are numbered, and
depending on their type support different command-line options. The import
subcommand can be directed to ignore many such items with a
--vsys X --unit Y --ignore option, where
X is the number of the virtual system (zero unless there are several
virtual system descriptions in the appliance) and Y the item number, as
printed on the screen.

In the above example, Item #1 specifies the name of the target
machine in VirtualBox. Items #9 and #10 specify hard disk controllers,
respectively. Item #11 describes a hard disk image; in this case, the
additional --controller option indicates
which item the disk image should be connected to, with the default coming
from the OVF file.

You can combine several items for the same virtual system behind the
same --vsys option. For example, to
import a machine as described in the OVF, but without the sound card and
without the USB controller, and with the disk image connected to the IDE
controller instead of the SCSI controller, use this:

VBoxManage import WindowsXp.ovf
      --vsys 0 --unit 5 --ignore --unit 6 --ignore --unit 11 --controller 10

VBoxManage export

This command exports one or more virtual machines from VirtualBox
into a virtual appliance in OVF format, including copying their virtual
disk images to compressed VMDK. See the section called “Importing and exporting virtual machines” for an
introduction to appliances.

The export command is simple to
use: list the machine (or the machines) that you would like to export to
the same OVF file and specify the target OVF file after an additional
--output or
-o option. Note that the directory of the
target OVF file will also receive the exported disk images in the
compressed VMDK format (regardless of the original format) and should have
enough disk space left for them.

Beside a simple export of a given virtual machine, you can append
several product information to the appliance file. Use
--product,
--producturl,
--vendor,
--vendorurl and
--version to specify this additional
information. For legal reasons you may add a license text or the content
of a license file by using the --eula and
--eulafile option respectively. As with
OVF import, you must use the --vsys X
option to direct the previously mentioned options to the correct virtual
machine.

For virtualization products which aren’t fully compatible with the
OVF standard 1.0 you can enable a OVF 0.9 legacy mode with the
--legacy09 option.

VBoxManage startvm

This command starts a virtual machine that is currently in the
“Powered off” or “Saved” states.

Note

This is provided for backwards compatibility only. We recommend to
start virtual machines directly by running the respective front-end, as
you might otherwise miss important error and state information that
VirtualBox may display on the console. This is especially important for
front-ends other than VirtualBox, our
graphical user interface, because those cannot display error messages in
a popup window. See the section called “VBoxHeadless, the remote desktop server” for more
information.

The optional --type specifier
determines whether the machine will be started in a window (GUI mode,
which is the default) or whether the output should go through
VBoxHeadless, with VRDE enabled or not;
see the section called “VBoxHeadless, the remote desktop server” for more information. The list of
types is subject to change, and it’s not guaranteed that all types are
accepted by any product variant.

The following values are allowed:

gui
Starts a VM showing a GUI window. This is the default.
headless
Starts a VM without a window for remote display only.

VBoxManage controlvm

The controlvm subcommand allows you
to change the state of a virtual machine that is currently running. The
following can be specified:

  • VBoxManage controlvm <vm>
    pause
    temporarily puts a virtual machine on hold,
    without changing its state for good. The VM window will be painted
    in gray to indicate that the VM is currently paused. (This is
    equivalent to selecting the “Pause” item in the “Machine” menu of
    the GUI.)
  • Use VBoxManage controlvm <vm>
    resume
    to undo a previous
    pause command. (This is equivalent
    to selecting the “Resume” item in the “Machine” menu of the
    GUI.)
  • VBoxManage controlvm <vm>
    reset
    has the same effect on a virtual machine as
    pressing the “Reset” button on a real computer: a cold reboot of the
    virtual machine, which will restart and boot the guest operating
    system again immediately. The state of the VM is not saved
    beforehand, and data may be lost. (This is equivalent to selecting
    the “Reset” item in the “Machine” menu of the GUI.)
  • VBoxManage controlvm <vm>
    poweroff
    has the same effect on a virtual machine
    as pulling the power cable on a real computer. Again, the state of
    the VM is not saved beforehand, and data may be lost. (This is
    equivalent to selecting the “Close” item in the “Machine” menu of
    the GUI or pressing the window’s close button, and then selecting
    “Power off the machine” in the dialog.)After this, the VM’s state will be “Powered off”. From there,
    it can be started again; see the section called “VBoxManage startvm”.
  • VBoxManage controlvm <vm>
    savestate
    will save the current state of the VM to
    disk and then stop the VM. (This is equivalent to selecting the
    “Close” item in the “Machine” menu of the GUI or pressing the
    window’s close button, and then selecting “Save the machine state”
    in the dialog.)After this, the VM’s state will be “Saved”. From there, it can
    be started again; see the section called “VBoxManage startvm”.
  • VBoxManage controlvm <vm> teleport
    --hostname <name> --port <port> [--password
    <password>]
    makes the machine the source of a
    teleporting operation and initiates a teleport to the given target.
    See the section called “Teleporting” for an introduction. If the
    optional password is specified, it must match the password that was
    given to the modifyvm command for
    the target machine; see the section called “Teleporting settings” for details.

A few extra options are available with
controlvm that do not directly affect the
VM’s running state:

  • The setlinkstate<1-N>
    operation connects or disconnects virtual network cables from their
    network interfaces.
  • nic<1-N>
    null|nat|bridged|intnet|hostonly|generic
    : With this, you can
    set, for each of the VM’s virtual network cards, what type of
    networking should be available. They can be not connected to the host
    (null), use network address
    translation (nat), bridged networking
    (bridged) or communicate with other
    virtual machines using internal networking
    (intnet) or host-only networking
    (hostonly) or access to rarely used
    sub-modes
    (generic). These options correspond
    to the modes which are described in detail in the section called “Introduction to networking modes”.
  • usbattach and
    usbdettach make host USB devices
    visible to the virtual machine on the fly, without the need for
    creating filters first. The USB devices can be specified by UUID
    (unique identifier) or by address on the host system.You can use VBoxManage list
    usbhost
    to locate this information.
  • vrde on|off lets you enable or
    disable the VRDE server, if it is installed.
  • vrdeport default|<ports>
    changes the port or a range of ports that the VRDE server can bind to;
    “default” or “0” means port 3389, the standard port for RDP. For
    details, see the description for the
    --vrdeport option in the section called “Serial port, audio, clipboard, remote desktop and USB
    settings”
    .
  • setvideomodehint requests that
    the guest system change to a particular video mode. This requires that
    the Guest Additions be installed, and will not work for all guest
    systems.
  • screenshotpng takes a screenshot
    of the guest display and saves it in PNG format.
  • The setcredentials operation is
    used for remote logons in Windows guests. For details, please refer to
    the section called “Automated guest logons”.
  • The guestmemoryballoon
    operation changes the size of the guest memory balloon, that is,
    memory allocated by the VirtualBox Guest Additions from the guest
    operating system and returned to the hypervisor for re-use by other
    virtual machines. This must be specified in megabytes. For details,
    see the section called “Memory ballooning”.
  • The cpuexecutioncap
    <1-100>
    : This operation controls how much cpu
    time a virtual CPU can use. A value of 50 implies a single virtual CPU
    can use up to 50% of a single host CPU.

VBoxManage discardstate

This command discards the saved state of a virtual machine which is
not currently running, which will cause its operating system to restart
next time you start it. This is the equivalent of pulling out the power
cable on a physical machine, and should be avoided if possible.

VBoxManage adoptstate

If you have a saved state file (.sav)
that is seperate from the VM configuration, you can use this command to
“adopt” the file. This will change the VM to saved state and when you
start it, VirtualBox will attempt to restore it from the saved state file
you indicated. This command should only be used in special setups.

VBoxManage snapshot

This command is used to control snapshots from the command line. A
snapshot consists of a complete copy of the virtual machine settings,
copied at the time when the snapshot was taken, and optionally a virtual
machine saved state file if the snapshot was taken while the machine was
running. After a snapshot has been taken, VirtualBox creates differencing
hard disk for each normal hard disk associated with the machine so that
when a snapshot is restored, the contents of the virtual machine’s virtual
hard disks can be quickly reset by simply dropping the pre-existing
differencing files.

The take operation takes a snapshot
of the current state of the virtual machine. You must supply a name for
the snapshot and can optionally supply a description. The new snapshot is
inserted into the snapshots tree as a child of the current snapshot and
then becomes the new current snapshot.

The delete operation deletes a
snapshot (specified by name or by UUID). This can take a while to finish
since the differencing images associated with the snapshot might need to
be merged with their child differencing images.

The restore operation will restore
the given snapshot (specified by name or by UUID) by resetting the virtual
machine’s settings and current state to that of the snapshot. The previous
current state of the machine will be lost. After this, the given snapshot
becomes the new “current” snapshot so that subsequent snapshots are
inserted under the snapshot from which was restored.

The restorecurrent operation is a
shortcut to restore the current snapshot (i.e. the snapshot from which the
current state is derived). This subcommand is equivalent to using the
“restore” subcommand with the name or UUID of the current snapshot, except
that it avoids the extra step of determining that name or UUID.

With the edit operation, you can
change the name or description of an existing snapshot.

With the showvminfo operation, you
can view the virtual machine settings that were stored with an existing
snapshot.

VBoxManage closemedium

This commands removes a hard disk, DVD or floppy image from a
VirtualBox media registry.[36]

Optionally, you can request that the image be deleted. You will get
appropriate diagnostics that the deletion failed, however the image will
become unregistered in any case.

VBoxManage storageattach

This command attaches/modifies/removes a storage medium connected to
a storage controller that was previously added with the
storagectl command (see the previous
section). The syntax is as follows:

VBoxManage storageattach    <uuid|vmname>
                            --storagectl <name>
                            [--port <number>]
                            [--device <number>]
                            [--type dvddrive|hdd|fdd]
                            [--medium none|emptydrive|
                                      <uuid>|<filename>|host:<drive>|iscsi]
                            [--mtype normal|writethrough|immutable|shareable]
                            [--comment <text>]
                            [--setuuid <uuid>]
                            [--setparentuuid <uuid>]
                            [--passthrough on|off]
                            [--tempeject on|off]
                            [--bandwidthgroup name|none]
                            [--forceunmount]
                            [--server <name>|<ip>]
                            [--target <target>]
                            [--tport <port>]
                            [--lun <lun>]
                            [--encodedlun <lun>]
                            [--username <username>]
                            [--password <password>]
                            [--intnet]

A number of parameters are commonly required; the ones at the end of
the list are required only for iSCSI targets (see below).

The common parameters are:

uuid|vmname
The VM UUID or VM Name. Mandatory.
storagectl
Name of the storage controller. Mandatory. The list of the
storage controllers currently attached to a VM can be obtained
with VBoxManage showvminfo; see
the section called “VBoxManage showvminfo”.
port
The number of the storage controller’s port which is to be
modified. Mandatory, unless the storage controller has only a
single port.
device
The number of the port’s device which is to be modified.
Mandatory, unless the storage controller has only a single device
per port.
type
Define the type of the drive to which the medium is being
attached/detached/modified. This argument can only be omitted if
the type of medium can be determined from either the medium given
with the --medium argument or
from a previous medium attachment.
medium
Specifies what is to be attached. The following values are
supported:

  • “none”: Any existing device should be removed from the
    given slot.
  • “emptydrive”: For a virtual DVD or floppy drive only,
    this makes the device slot behaves like a removeable drive
    into which no media has been inserted.
  • If a UUID is specified, it must be the UUID of a
    storage medium that is already known to VirtualBox (e.g.
    because it has been attached to another virtual machine).
    See the section called “VBoxManage list” for how to list known
    media. This medium is then attached to the given device
    slot.
  • If a filename is specified, it must be the full path
    of an existing disk image (ISO, RAW, VDI, VMDK or other),
    which is then attached to the given device slot.
  • “host:<drive>”: For a virtual DVD or floppy
    drive only, this connects the given device slot to the
    specified DVD or floppy drive on the host computer.
  • “iscsi”: For virtual hard disks only, this allows for
    specifying an iSCSI target. In this case, more parameters
    must be given; see below.

Some of the above changes, in particular for removeable
media (floppies and CDs/DVDs), can be effected while a VM is
running. Others (device changes or changes in hard disk device
slots) require the VM to be powered off.

mtype
Defines how this medium behaves with respect to snapshots
and write operations. See the section called “Special image write modes” for
details.
comment
Any description that you want to have stored with this
medium (optional; for example, for an iSCSI target, “Big storage
server downstairs”). This is purely descriptive and not needed for
the medium to function correctly.
setuuid, setparentuuid
Modifies the UUID or parent UUID of a medium before
attaching it to a VM. This is an expert option. Inappropriate use
can make the medium unusable or lead to broken VM configurations
if any other VM is referring to the same media already. The most
frequently used variant is --setuuid "", which assigns
a new (random) UUID to an image. This is useful to resolve the
duplicate UUID errors if one duplicated an image using file copy
utilities.
passthrough
For a virtual DVD drive only, you can enable DVD writing
support (currently experimental; see the section called “CD/DVD support”).
tempeject
For a virtual DVD drive only, you can configure the behavior
for guest-triggered medium eject. If this is set to “on”, the eject
has only temporary effects. If the VM is powered off and restarted
the originally configured medium will be still in the drive.
bandwidthgroup
Sets the bandwidth group to use for the given device; see
the section called “Limiting bandwidth for disk images”.
forceunmount
For a virtual DVD or floppy drive only, this forcibly
unmounts the DVD/CD/Floppy or mounts a new DVD/CD/Floppy even if
the previous one is locked down by the guest for reading. Again,
see the section called “CD/DVD support” for details.

When “iscsi” is used with the
--medium parameter for iSCSI support –
see the section called “iSCSI servers” –, additional parameters must or can
be used:

server
The host name or IP address of the iSCSI target;
required.
target
Target name string. This is determined by the iSCSI target
and used to identify the storage resource; required.
tport
TCP/IP port number of the iSCSI service on the target
(optional).
lun
Logical Unit Number of the target resource (optional).
Often, this value is zero.
username, password
Username and password for target authentication, if required
(optional).

Note

Currently, username and password are stored without
encryption (i.e. in clear text) in the XML machine
configuration file.

intnet
If specified, connect to the iSCSI target via Internal
Networking. This needs further configuration which is described in
the section called “Access iSCSI targets via Internal
Networking”
.

VBoxManage storagectl

This command attaches/modifies/removes a storage controller. After
this, virtual media can be attached to the controller with the
storageattach command (see the next
section).

The syntax is as follows:

VBoxManage storagectl       <uuid|vmname>
                            --name <name>
                            [--add <ide/sata/scsi/floppy>]
                            [--controller <LsiLogic|LSILogicSAS|BusLogic|
                                          IntelAhci|PIIX3|PIIX4|ICH6|I82078>]
                            [--sataideemulation<1-4> <1-30>]
                            [--sataportcount <1-30>]
                            [--hostiocache on|off]
                            [--bootable on|off]
                            [--remove]

where the parameters mean:

uuid|vmname
The VM UUID or VM Name. Mandatory.
name
Name of the storage controller. Mandatory.
add
Define the type of the system bus to which the storage
controller must be connected.
controller
Allows to choose the type of chipset being emulated for the
given storage controller.
sataideemulation
This specifies which SATA ports should operate in IDE
emulation mode. As explained in the section called “Hard disk controllers: IDE, SATA (AHCI), SCSI, SAS”, by default, this is the case for
SATA ports 1-4; with this command, you can map four IDE channels
to any of the 30 supported SATA ports.
sataportcount
This determines how many ports the SATA controller should
support.
hostiocache
Configures the use of the host I/O cache for all disk images
attached to this storage controller. For details, please see the section called “Host I/O caching”.
bootable
Selects whether this controller is bootable.
remove
Removes the storage controller from the VM config.

VBoxManage bandwidthctl

This command creates/deletes/modifies bandwidth groups of the given
virtual machine:

VBoxManage bandwidthctl    <uuid|vmname>
                          --name <name>
                          [--add disk
                          [--delete]
                          [--limit MB/s]

See the section called “Limiting bandwidth for disk images” for an introduction
to bandwidth limits. The parameters mean:

uuid|vmname
The VM UUID or VM Name. Mandatory.
name
Name of the bandwidth group. Mandatory.
add
Creates a new bandwdith group with the given type.
delete
Deletes a bandwdith group if it isn’t used anymore.
limit
Sets the limit for the given group to the specified amount.
Can be changed while the VM is running.

VBoxManage showhdinfo

This command shows information about a virtual hard disk image,
notably its size, its size on disk, its type and the virtual machines
which use it.

Note

For compatibility with earlier versions of VirtualBox, the
“showvdiinfo” command is also supported and mapped internally to the
“showhdinfo” command.

The disk image must be specified either by its UUID (if the medium
is registered) or by its filename. Registered images can be listed by
VBoxManage list hdds (see the section called “VBoxManage list”
for more information). A filename must be specified as valid path, either
as an absolute path or as a relative path starting from the current
directory.

VBoxManage createhd

This command creates a new virtual hard disk image. The syntax is as
follows:

VBoxManage createhd         --filename <filename>
                            --size <megabytes>
                            [--format VDI|VMDK|VHD] (default: VDI)
                            [--variant Standard,Fixed,Split2G,Stream,ESX]

where the parameters mean:

filename
Allows to choose a file name. Mandatory.
size
Allows to define the image capacity, in 1 MiB units.
Mandatory.
format
Allows to choose a file format for the output file different
from the file format of the input file.
variant
Allows to choose a file format variant for the output file.
It is a comma-separated list of variant flags. Not all
combinations are supported, and specifying inconsistent flags will
result in an error message.

Note

For compatibility with earlier versions of VirtualBox, the
“createvdi” command is also supported and mapped internally to the
“createhd” command.

VBoxManage modifyhd

With the modifyhd command, you can
change the characteristics of a disk image after it has been
created:

VBoxManage modifyhd         <uuid>|<filename>
                            [--type normal|writethrough|immutable|shareable|
                                    readonly|multiattach]
                            [--autoreset on|off]
                            [--compact]
                            [--resize <megabytes>|--resizebyte <bytes>]

Note

Despite the “hd” in the subcommand name, the command works with
all disk images, not only hard disks. For compatibility with earlier
versions of VirtualBox, the “modifyvdi” command is also supported and
mapped internally to the “modifyhd” command.

The disk image to modify must be specified either by its UUID
(if the medium is registered) or by its filename. Registered images
can be listed by VBoxManage list hdds
(see the section called “VBoxManage list” for more information).
A filename must be specified as valid path, either as an absolute path
or as a relative path starting from the current directory.

The following options are available:

  • With the --type argument, you
    can change the type of an existing image between the normal,
    immutable, write-through and other modes; see the section called “Special image write modes” for details.
  • For immutable (differencing) hard disks only, the
    --autoreset on|off option
    determines whether the disk is automatically reset on every VM
    startup (again, see the section called “Special image write modes”). The default
    is “on”.
  • With the --compact option,
    can be used to compact disk images, i.e. remove blocks that only
    contains zeroes. This will shrink a dynamically allocated image
    again; it will reduce the physical size of the
    image without affecting the logical size of the virtual disk.
    Compaction works both for base images and for diff images created as
    part of a snapshot.For this operation to be effective, it is required that free
    space in the guest system first be zeroed out using a suitable
    software tool. For Windows guests, you can use the
    sdelete tool provided by Microsoft.
    Execute sdelete -c in the guest to
    zero the free disk space before compressing the virtual disk
    image. For Linux, use the zerofree utility which
    supports ext2/ext3 filesystems.Please note that compacting is currently only available for
    VDI images. A similar effect can be achieved by zeroing out free
    blocks and then cloning the disk to any other dynamically allocated
    format. You can use this workaround until compacting is also
    supported for disk formats other than VDI.
  • The --resize option allows you
    to change the capacity of an existing image; this adjusts the
    logical size of a virtual disk without affecting
    the physical size much.[37] This currently works only for expanding the capacity of
    VDI and VHD formats, and only for the dynamically allocated variants.
    For example, if you originally created a 10G disk which is now full,
    you can use the --resize 15360
    command to add 5 GByte more space to the virtual disk without
    having to create a new image and copy all data from within a virtual
    machine.

VBoxManage clonehd

This command duplicates a registered virtual hard disk image to a
new image file with a new unique identifier (UUID). The new image can be
transferred to another host system or imported into VirtualBox again using
the Virtual Media Manager; see the section called “The Virtual Media Manager” and the section called “Cloning disk images”. The syntax is as follows:

VBoxManage clonehd         <uuid>|<filename> <outputfile>
                           [--format VDI|VMDK|VHD|RAW|<other>]
                           [--variant Standard,Fixed,Split2G,Stream,ESX]
                           [--existing]

The disk image to clone as well as the target image must be described
either by its UUIDs (if the mediums are registered) or by its filename.
Registered images can be listed by VBoxManage list hdds
(see the section called “VBoxManage list” for more information).
A filename must be specified as valid path, either as an absolute path or
as a relative path starting from the current directory.

The following options are available:

format
Allow to choose a file format for the output file different
from the file format of the input file.
variant
Allow to choose a file format variant for the output file.
It is a comma-separated list of variant flags. Not all
combinations are supported, and specifying inconsistent flags will
result in an error message.
existing
Perform the clone operation to an already existing
destination medium. Only the portion of the source medium which
fits into the destination medium is copied. This means if the
destination medium is smaller than the source only a part of it is
copied, and if the destination medium is larger than the source
the remaining part of the destination medium is unchanged.

Note

For compatibility with earlier versions of VirtualBox, the
“clonevdi” command is also supported and mapped internally to the
“clonehd” command.

VBoxManage convertfromraw

This command converts a raw disk image to a VirtualBox Disk Image
(VDI) file. The syntax is as follows:

VBoxManage convertfromraw   <filename> <outputfile>
                            [--format VDI|VMDK|VHD]
                            [--variant Standard,Fixed,Split2G,Stream,ESX]
                            [--uuid <uuid>]
VBoxManage convertfromraw   stdin <outputfile> <bytes>
                            [--format VDI|VMDK|VHD]
                            [--variant Standard,Fixed,Split2G,Stream,ESX]
                            [--uuid <uuid>]

where the parameters mean:

format
Select the disk image format to create. Default is
VDI.
variant
Allow to choose a file format variant for the output file.
It is a comma-separated list of variant flags. Not all
combinations are supported, and specifying inconsistent flags will
result in an error message.
uuid
Allow to specifiy the UUID of the output file.

The second form forces VBoxManage to read the content for
the disk image from standard input (useful for using that command in a
pipe).

Note

For compatibility with earlier versions of VirtualBox, the
“convertdd” command is also supported and mapped internally to the
“convertfromraw” command.

VBoxManage getextradata/setextradata

These commands let you attach and retrieve string data to a virtual
machine or to a VirtualBox configuration (by specifying
global instead of a virtual machine
name). You must specify a key (as a text string) to associate the data
with, which you can later use to retrieve it. For example:

VBoxManage setextradata Fedora5 installdate 2006.01.01
VBoxManage setextradata SUSE10 installdate 2006.02.02

would associate the string “2006.01.01” with the key installdate for
the virtual machine Fedora5, and “2006.02.02” on the machine SUSE10. You
could retrieve the information as follows:

VBoxManage getextradata Fedora5 installdate

which would return

VirtualBox Command Line Management Interface Version 4.1.14
(C) 2005-2012 Oracle Corporation
All rights reserved.

Value: 2006.01.01

To remove a key, the setextradata
command must be run without specifying data (only the key), for example:

VBoxManage setextradata Fedora5 installdate

VBoxManage setproperty

This command is used to change global settings which affect the
entire VirtualBox installation. Some of these correspond to the settings
in the “Global settings” dialog in the graphical user interface. The
following properties are available:

machinefolder
This specifies the default folder in which virtual machine
definitions are kept; see the section called “Where VirtualBox stores its files” for
details.
vrdeauthlibrary
This specifies which library to use when “external”
authentication has been selected for a particular virtual machine;
see the section called “RDP authentication” for details.
websrvauthlibrary
This specifies which library the web service uses to
authenticate users. For details about the VirtualBox web service,
please refer to the separate VirtualBox SDK reference (see Chapter 11, VirtualBox programming interfaces).
vrdelibrary
This specifies which library implements the VirtualBox
Remote Desktop Extension.
hwvirtexenabled
This selects whether or not hardware virtualization support
is enabled by default.

VBoxManage usbfilter add/modify/remove

The usbfilter commands are used for
working with USB filters in virtual machines, or global filters which
affect the whole VirtualBox setup. Global filters are applied before
machine-specific filters, and may be used to prevent devices from being
captured by any virtual machine. Global filters are always applied in a
particular order, and only the first filter which fits a device is
applied. So for example, if the first global filter says to hold (make
available) a particular Kingston memory stick device and the second to
ignore all Kingston devices, that memory stick will be available to any
machine with an appropriate filter, but no other Kingston device
will.

When creating a USB filter using usbfilter
add
, you must supply three or four mandatory parameters.
The index specifies the position in the list at which the filter should be
placed. If there is already a filter at that position, then it and the
following ones will be shifted back one place. Otherwise the new filter
will be added onto the end of the list. The
target parameter selects the virtual
machine that the filter should be attached to or use “global” to apply it
to all virtual machines. name is a name
for the new filter and for global filters,
action says whether to allow machines
access to devices that fit the filter description (“hold”) or not to give
them access (“ignore”). In addition, you should specify parameters to
filter by. You can find the parameters for devices attached to your system
using VBoxManage list usbhost. Finally,
you can specify whether the filter should be active, and for local
filters, whether they are for local devices, remote (over an RDP
connection) or either.

When you modify a USB filter using usbfilter
modify
, you must specify the filter by index (see the
output of VBoxManage list usbfilters to
find global filter indexes and that of VBoxManage
showvminfo
to find indexes for individual machines) and
by target, which is either a virtual machine or “global”. The properties
which can be changed are the same as for usbfilter
add
. To remove a filter, use usbfilter
remove
and specify the index and the target.

VBoxManage sharedfolder add/remove

This command allows you to share folders on the host computer with
guest operating systems. For this, the guest systems must have a version
of the VirtualBox Guest Additions installed which supports this
functionality.

Shared folders are described in detail in the section called “Shared folders”.

VBoxManage guestproperty

The “guestproperty” commands allow you to get or set properties of a
running virtual machine. Please see the section called “Guest properties”
for an introduction. As explained there, guest properties are arbitrary
key/value string pairs which can be written to and read from by either the
guest or the host, so they can be used as a low-volume communication
channel for strings, provided that a guest is running and has the Guest
Additions installed. In addition, a number of values whose keys begin with
“/VirtualBox/” are automatically set and maintained by the Guest
Additions.

The following subcommands are available (where
<vm>, in each case, can either be a
VM name or a VM UUID, as with the other VBoxManage commands):

  • enumerate <vm> [--patterns
    <pattern>]
    : This lists all the guest
    properties that are available for the given VM, including the value.
    This list will be very limited if the guest’s service process cannot
    be contacted, e.g. because the VM is not running or the Guest
    Additions are not installed.If --patterns <pattern>
    is specified, it acts as a filter to only list properties that match
    the given pattern. The pattern can contain the following wildcard
    characters:

    • * (asterisk):
      represents any number of characters; for example,
      /VirtualBox*” would match
      all properties beginning with “/VirtualBox”.
    • ? (question mark):
      represents a single arbitrary character; for example,
      fo?” would match both “foo”
      and “for”.
    • | (pipe symbol): can be
      used to specify multiple alternative patterns; for example,
      s*|t*” would match anything
      starting with either “s” or “t”.
  • get <vm>: This
    retrieves the value of a single property only. If the property
    cannot be found (e.g. because the guest is not running), this will
    print

    No value set!
  • set <vm> <property> [<value>
    [--flags <flags>]]
    : This allows you to set a
    guest property by specifying the key and value. If
    <value> is omitted, the
    property is deleted. With --flags
    you can optionally specify additional behavior (you can combine
    several by separating them with commas):

    • TRANSIENT: the value
      will not be stored with the VM data when the VM exits;
    • TRANSRESET: the value
      will be deleted as soon as the VM restarts and/or exits;
    • RDONLYGUEST: the value
      can only be changed by the host, but the guest can only read
      it;
    • RDONLYHOST: reversely,
      the value can only be changed by the guest, but the host can
      only read it;
    • READONLY: a combination
      of the two, the value cannot be changed at all.
  • wait <vm> <pattern> --timeout
    <timeout>
    : This waits for a particular value
    described by “pattern” to change or to be deleted or created. The
    pattern rules are the same as for the “enumerate” subcommand
    above.

VBoxManage guestcontrol

The “guestcontrol” commands allow you to control certain things
inside a guest from the host. Please see the section called “Guest control” for an introduction.

Generally, the syntax is as follows:

VBoxManage guestcontrol <command>

The following subcommands are available (where
<vm>, in each case, can either be a
VM name or a VM UUID, as with the other VBoxManage commands):

  • execute, which allows for
    executing a program/script (process) which already is installed and
    runnable on the guest. This command only works while a VM is up and
    running and has the following syntax:

    VBoxManage guestcontrol <vmname>|<uuid> exec[ute]
                --image <path to program>
                --username <name> [--password <password>]
                [--dos2unix]
                [--environment "<NAME>=<VALUE> [<NAME>=<VALUE>]"]
                [--timeout <msec>] [--unix2dos] [--verbose]
                [--wait-exit] [--wait-stdout] [--wait-stderr]
                -- [[<argument1>] ... [<argumentN>]]

    where the parameters mean:

    uuid|vmname
    The VM UUID or VM name. Mandatory.
    –image “<path to program>”
    Absolute path and process name of process to execute
    in the guest, e.g.
    C:\Windows\System32\calc.exe
    –username <name>
    Name of the user the process should run under. This
    user must exist on the guest OS.
    –password <password>
    Password of the user account specified with
    --username. If not given,
    an empty password is assumed.
    –dos2unix
    –environment
    “<NAME>=<VALUE>”
    One or more environment variables to be set or
    unset.By default, the new process in the guest will be
    created with the standard environment of the guest OS. This
    option allows for modifying that environment. To set/modify
    a variable, a pair of
    NAME=VALUE must be
    specified; to unset a certain variable, the name with no
    value must set, e.g.
    NAME=.Arguments containing spaces must be enclosed in
    quotation marks. More than one
    --environment at a time can
    be specified to keep the command line tidy.

    –timeout <msec>
    Value (in milliseconds) that specifies the time how
    long the started process is allowed to run and how long
    VBoxManage waits for getting output from that process. If no
    timeout is specified, VBoxManage will wait forever until the
    started process ends or an error occured.
    –unix2dos
    –verbose
    Tells VBoxManage to be more verbose.
    –wait-exit
    Waits until the process ends and outputs its
    exit code along with the exit reason/flags.
    –wait-stdout
    Waits until the process ends and outputs its
    exit code along with the exit reason/flags. While waiting
    VBoxManage retrieves the process output collected from stdout.
    –wait-stderr
    Waits until the process ends and outputs its
    exit code along with the exit reason/flags. While waiting
    VBoxManage retrieves the process output collected from stderr.
    [– [<argument1s>] … [<argumentNs>]]
    One or more arguments to pass to the process being
    executed.Arguments containing spaces must be enclosed in
    quotation marks.

    Note

    On Windows there are certain limitations for graphical
    applications; please see Chapter 14, Known limitations for more
    information.

    Examples:

    VBoxManage --nologo guestcontrol "My VM" execute --image "/bin/ls"
              --username foo --password bar --wait-exit --wait-stdout -- -l /usr
    VBoxManage --nologo guestcontrol "My VM" execute --image "c:\\windows\\system32\\ipconfig.exe"
              --username foo --password bar --wait-exit --wait-stdout

    Note that
    the double backslashes in the second example are only required on
    Unix hosts.

    Note

    For certain commands a user name of an existing user account on the guest
    must be specified; anonymous executions are not supported for security reasons. A
    user account password, however, is optional and depends on the guest’s OS security
    policy or rules. If no password is specified for a given user name, an empty password
    will be used. On certain OSes like Windows the security policy may needs to be adjusted
    in order to allow user accounts with an empty password set. Also, global domain rules might
    apply and therefore cannot be changed.

    Starting at VirtualBox 4.1.2 guest process execution by default is limited
    to serve up to 5 guest processes at a time. If a new guest process gets started
    which would exceed this limit, the oldest not running guest process will be discarded
    in order to be able to run that new process. Also, retrieving output from this
    old guest process will not be possible anymore then. If all 5 guest processes
    are still active and running, starting a new guest process will result in an
    appropriate error message.

    To raise or lower the guest process execution limit, either the guest
    property /VirtualBox/GuestAdd/VBoxService/--control-procs-max-kept
    or VBoxService’ command line by specifying --control-procs-max-kept
    needs to be modified. A restart of the guest OS is required afterwards. To serve unlimited
    guest processes, a value of 0 needs to be set (not recommended).

  • copyto, which allows copying
    files from the host to the guest (only with installed Guest
    Additions 4.0 and later).

    VBoxManage guestcontrol <vmname>|<uuid> copyto|cp
                <source on host> <destination on guest>
                --username <name> [--password <password>]
                [--dryrun] [--follow] [--recursive] [--verbose]

    where the parameters mean:

    uuid|vmname
    The VM UUID or VM name. Mandatory.
    source on host
    Absolute path of source file(s) on host to copy over
    to the guest, e.g.
    C:\Windows\System32\calc.exe.
    This also can be a wildcard expression, e.g.
    C:\Windows\System32\*.dll
    destination on guest
    Absolute destination path on the guest, e.g.
    C:\Temp
    –username <name>
    Name of the user the copy process should run under.
    This user must exist on the guest OS.
    –password <password>
    Password of the user account specified with
    --username. If not given,
    an empty password is assumed.
    –dryrun
    Tells VBoxManage to only perform a dry run instead of
    really copying files to the guest.
    –follow
    Enables following symlinks on the host’s
    source.
    –recursive
    Recursively copies files/directories of the specified
    source.
    –verbose
    Tells VBoxManage to be more verbose.
    –flags <flags>
    Additional flags to set. This is not used at the
    moment.
  • createdirectory, which allows
    copying files from the host to the guest (only with installed Guest
    Additions 4.0 and later).

    VBoxManage guestcontrol <vmname>|<uuid> createdir[ectory]|mkdir|md
                <directory to create on guest>
                [--username "<name>"] [--password "<password>"]
                [--parents] [--mode <mode>] [--verbose]

    where the parameters mean:

    uuid|vmname
    The VM UUID or VM name. Mandatory.
    directory to create on guest
    Absolute path of directory/directories to create on
    guest, e.g. D:\Foo\Bar.
    Parent directories need to exist (e.g. in this example
    D:\Foo) when switch
    --parents is omitted. The
    specified user must have appropriate rights to create the
    specified directory.
    –username <name>
    Name of the user the copy process should run under.
    This user must exist on the guest OS.
    –password <password>
    Password of the user account specified with
    --username. If not given,
    an empty password is assumed.
    –parents
    Also creates not yet existing parent directories of
    the specified directory, e.g. if the directory
    D:\Foo of
    D:\Foo\Bar does not exist
    yet it will be created. Without specifying
    --parent the action would
    have failed.
    –mode <mode>
    Sets the permission mode of the specified directory.
    Only octal modes (e.g.
    0755) are supported right
    now.
    –verbose
    Tells VBoxManage to be more verbose.
  • stat, which displays file
    or file system status on the guest.

    VBoxManage guestcontrol <vmname>|<uuid> stat
                <file element(s) to check on guest>
                [--username "<name>"] [--password "<password>"]
                [--verbose]

    where the parameters mean:

    uuid|vmname
    The VM UUID or VM name. Mandatory.
    file element(s) to check on guest
    Absolute path of directory/directories to check on
    guest, e.g. /home/foo/a.out.
    The specified user must have appropriate rights to access
    the given file element(s).
    –username <name>
    Name of the user the copy process should run under.
    This user must exist on the guest OS.
    –password <password>
    Password of the user account specified with
    --username. If not given,
    an empty password is assumed.
    –verbose
    Tells VBoxManage to be more verbose.
  • updateadditions, which allows
    for updating an already installed Guest Additions version on the
    guest (only already installed Guest Additions 4.0 and later).

    VBoxManage guestcontrol <vmname>|<uuid> updateadditions
                [--source "<guest additions .ISO file to use>"] [--verbose]

    where the parameters mean:

    uuid|vmname
    The VM UUID or VM name. Mandatory.
    –source “<guest additions .ISO file to
    use>”
    Full path to an alternative VirtualBox Guest Additions
    .ISO file to use for the Guest Additions update.
    –verbose
    Tells VBoxManage to be more verbose.

VBoxManage debugvm

The “debugvm” commands are for experts who want to tinker with the
exact details of virtual machine execution. Like the VM debugger described
in the section called “The built-in VM debugger”, these commands are only useful if you are
very familiar with the details of the PC architecture and how to debug
software.

The subcommands of “debugvm” all operate on a running virtual
machine. The following are available:

  • With dumpguestcore --filename
    <name>
    , you can create a system dump of the
    running VM, which will be written into the given file. This file
    will have the standard ELF core format (with custom sections); see
    the section called “VM core format”.This corresponds to the
    writecore command in the debugger.
  • The info command is used to
    display info items relating to the VMM, device emulations and
    associated drivers. This command takes one or two arguments: the
    name of the info item, optionally followed by a string containing
    arguments specific to the info item.
    The help info item provides a
    listning of the available items and hints about any optional
    arguments.This corresponds to the info
    command in the debugger.
  • The injectnmi command causes
    a non-maskable interrupt (NMI) in the guest, which might be useful
    for certain debugging scenarios. What happens exactly is dependent
    on the guest operating system, but an NMI can crash the whole guest
    operating system. Do not use unless you know what you’re
    doing.
  • The osdetect command makes the
    VMM’s debugger facility (re-)detection the guest operation
    system.This corresponds to the detect
    command in the debugger.
  • The osinfo command is used to
    display info about the operating system (OS) detected by the VMM’s
    debugger facility.
  • The getregisters command is
    used to display CPU and device registers. The command takes a list
    of registers, each having one of the following forms:

    • register-set.register-name.sub-field
    • register-set.register-name
    • cpu-register-name.sub-field
    • cpu-register-name
    • all

    The all form will cause all
    registers to be shown (no sub-fields). The registers names are
    case-insensitive. When requesting a CPU register the register set
    can be omitted, it will be selected using the value of the
    --cpu option (defaulting to 0).

  • The setregisters command is
    used to change CPU and device registers. The command takes a list
    of register assignments, each having one of the following forms:

    • register-set.register-name.sub-field=value
    • register-set.register-name=value
    • cpu-register-name.sub-field=value
    • cpu-register-name=value

    The value format should be in the same style as what
    getregisters displays, with the
    exception that both octal and decimal can be used instead of
    hexadecimal. The register naming and the default CPU register set
    are handled the same way as with the
    getregisters command.

  • The statistics command can be
    used to display VMM statistics on the command line. The
    --reset option will reset
    statistics. The affected statistics can be filtered with the
    --pattern option, which accepts
    DOS/NT-style wildcards (? and
    *).

VBoxManage metrics

This command supports monitoring the usage of system resources.
Resources are represented by various metrics associated with the host
system or a particular VM. For example, the host system has a
CPU/Load/User metric that shows the
percentage of time CPUs spend executing in user mode over a specific
sampling period.

Metric data is collected and retained internally; it may be
retrieved at any time with the VBoxManage metrics
query
subcommand. The data is available as long as the
background VBoxSVC process is alive. That
process terminates shortly after all VMs and frontends have been
closed.

By default no metrics are collected at all. Metrics collection does
not start until VBoxManage metrics setup
is invoked with a proper sampling interval and the number of metrics to be
retained. The interval is measured in seconds. For example, to enable
collecting the host processor and memory usage metrics every second and
keeping the 5 most current samples, the following command can be
used:

VBoxManage metrics setup --period 1 --samples 5 host CPU/Load,RAM/Usage

Metric collection can only be enabled for started VMs. Collected
data and collection settings for a particular VM will disappear as soon as
it shuts down. Use VBoxManage metrics list
subcommand to see which metrics are currently available.
You can also use --list option with any
subcommand that modifies metric settings to find out which metrics were
affected.

Note that the VBoxManage metrics
setup
subcommand discards all samples that may have been
previously collected for the specified set of objects and metrics.

To enable or disable metrics collection without discarding the data
VBoxManage metrics enable and
VBoxManage metrics disable subcommands
can be used. Note that these subcommands expect metrics, not submetrics,
like CPU/Load or RAM/Usage as parameters. In
other words enabling CPU/Load/User while disabling
CPU/Load/Kernel is not supported.

The host and VMs have different sets of associated metrics.
Available metrics can be listed with VBoxManage metrics
list
subcommand.

A complete metric name may include an aggregate function. The name
has the following form:
Category/Metric[/SubMetric][:aggregate].
For example, RAM/Usage/Free:min stands
for the minimum amount of available memory over all retained data if
applied to the host object.

Subcommands may apply to all objects and metrics or can be limited
to one object or/and a list of metrics. If no objects or metrics are given
in the parameters, the subcommands will apply to all available metrics of
all objects. You may use an asterisk
(“*“) to explicitly specify that the
command should be applied to all objects or metrics. Use “host” as the
object name to limit the scope of the command to host-related metrics. To
limit the scope to a subset of metrics, use a metric list with names
separated by commas.

For example, to query metric data on the CPU time spent in user and
kernel modes by the virtual machine named “test”, you can use the
following command:

VBoxManage metrics query test CPU/Load/User,CPU/Load/Kernel

The following list summarizes the available subcommands:

list
This subcommand shows the parameters of the currently existing
metrics. Note that VM-specific metrics are only available when a
particular VM is running.
setup
This subcommand sets the interval between taking two samples
of metric data and the number of samples retained internally. The
retained data is available for displaying with the
query subcommand. The --list
option shows which metrics have been modified as
the result of the command execution.
enable
This subcommand “resumes” data collection after it has been
stopped with disable subcommand. Note that specifying
submetrics as parameters will not enable underlying metrics. Use
--list to find out if the command
did what was expected.
disable
This subcommand “suspends” data collection without affecting
collection parameters or collected data. Note that specifying
submetrics as parameters will not disable underlying metrics. Use
--list to find out if the command
did what was expected.
query
This subcommand retrieves and displays the currently retained
metric data.

Note

The query subcommand does not remove or
“flush” retained data. If you query often enough you will see
how old samples are gradually being “phased out” by new
samples.

collect
This subcommand sets the interval between taking two samples
of metric data and the number of samples retained internally. The
collected data is displayed periodically until Ctrl-C is pressed
unless the --detach option is
specified. With the --detach
option, this subcommand operates the same way as setup
does. The --list option shows which
metrics match the specified filter.

VBoxManage hostonlyif

With “hostonlyif” you can change the IP configuration of a host-only
network interface. For a description of host-only networking, please
refer to the section called “Host-only networking”. Each host-only interface is
identified by a name and can either use the internal DHCP server or a
manual IP configuration (both IP4 and IP6).

VBoxManage dhcpserver

The “dhcpserver” commands allow you to control the DHCP server that
is built into VirtualBox. You may find this useful when using internal or
host-only networking. (Theoretically, you can enable it for a bridged
network as well, but that will likely cause conflicts with other DHCP
servers in your physical network.)

Use the following command line options:

  • If you use internal networking for a virtual network adapter
    of a virtual machine, use VBoxManage dhcpserver add
    --netname <network_name>
    , where
    <network_name> is the same
    network name you used with VBoxManage modifyvm
    <vmname> --intnet<X>
    <network_name>
    .
  • If you use host-only networking for a virtual network adapter
    of a virtual machine, use VBoxManage dhcpserver add
    --ifname <hostonly_if_name>
    instead, where
    <hostonly_if_name> is the
    same host-only interface name you used with
    VBoxManage modifyvm <vmname>
    --hostonlyadapter<X>
    <hostonly_if_name>
    .Alternatively, you can also use the –netname option as with
    internal networks if you know the host-only network’s name; you can
    see the names with VBoxManage list
    hostonlyifs
    (see the section called “VBoxManage list”
    above).

The following additional parameters are required when first adding a
DHCP server:

  • With --ip, specify the IP
    address of the DHCP server itself.
  • With --netmask, specify the
    netmask of the network.
  • With --lowerip and
    --upperip, you can specify the
    lowest and highest IP address, respectively, that the DHCP server
    will hand out to clients.

Finally, you must specify --enable
or the DHCP server will be created in the disabled state, doing
nothing.

After this, VirtualBox will automatically start the DHCP server for
given internal or host-only network as soon as the first virtual machine
which uses that network is started.

Reversely, use VBoxManage dhcpserver
remove
with the given --netname
<network_name>
or --ifname
<hostonly_if_name>
to remove the DHCP server again
for the given internal or host-only network.

To modify the settings of a DHCP server created earlier with
VBoxManage dhcpserver add, you can use
VBoxManage dhcpserver modify for a given
network or host-only interface name.

VBoxManage extpack

The “extpack” command allows you to add or remove VirtualBox
extension packs, as described in the section called “Installing VirtualBox and extension packs”.

  • To add a new extension pack, use VBoxManage
    extpack install <tarball>
    . This command
    will fail if an older version of the same extension pack is already
    installed. The optional --replace
    parameter can be used to uninstall the old package before the new
    package is installed.
  • To remove a previously installed extension pack, use
    VBoxManage extpack uninstall
    <name>
    . You can use
    VBoxManage list extpacks to show
    the names of the extension packs which are currently installed;
    please see the section called “VBoxManage list” also. The optional
    --force parameter can be used to
    override the refusal of an extension pack to be uninstalled.
  • The VBoxManage extpack
    cleanup
    command can be used to remove temporary
    files and directories that may have been left behind if a previous
    install or uninstall command failed.

[36] Before VirtualBox 4.0, it was necessary to call VBoxManage
openmedium before a medium could be attached to a virtual machine;
that call “registered” the medium with the global VirtualBox media
registry. With VirtualBox 4.0 this is no longer necessary; media are
added to media registries automatically. The “closemedium” call has
been retained, however, to allow for explicitly removing a medium from
a registry.

[37] Image resizing was added with VirtualBox 4.0.

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Passo a Passo para resolver problemas ao iniciar o Oracle Grid Infrastructure

Troubleshooting Grid Infrastructure startup

This has been an interesting story today when one of my blades decided to reboot after an EXT3 journal error. The hard facts first:

  • Oracle Linux 5.5 with kernel 2.6.18-194.11.4.0.1.el5
  • Oracle 11.2.0.2 RAC
  • Bonded NICs for private and public networks
  • BL685-G6 with 128G RAM

First I noticed the node had problems when I tried to get all databases configured on the cluster. I got the dreaded “cannot communicate with the CRSD”

1
[oracle@node1.example.com] $ srvctl config database
2 PRCR-1119 : Failed to look up CRS resources of database type
3 PRCR-1115 : Failed to find entities of type resource that match filters (TYPE ==ora.database.type) and contain attributes DB_UNIQUE_NAME,ORACLE_HOME,VERSION
4
Cannot communicate with crsd

Not too great, especially since everything worked when I left yesterday. What could have gone wrong?An obvious reason for this could be a reboot, and fair enough, there has been one:

[grid@node1.example.com] $ uptime
09:09:22 up  2:40,  1 user,  load average: 1.47, 1.46, 1.42

The next step was to check if the local CRS stack was up, or better, to check what was down. Sometimes it’s only crsd which has a problem. In my case everything was down:

01 [grid@node1.example.com] $ crsctl check crs
02 CRS-4638: Oracle High Availability Services is online
03 CRS-4535: Cannot communicate with Cluster Ready Services
04 CRS-4530: Communications failure contacting Cluster Synchronization Services daemon
05 CRS-4534: Cannot communicate with Event Manager
06 [grid@node1.example.com] $ crsctl check cluster -all
07 **************************************************************
08 node1:
09 CRS-4535: Cannot communicate with Cluster Ready Services
10 CRS-4530: Communications failure contacting Cluster Synchronization Services daemon
11 CRS-4534: Cannot communicate with Event Manager
12 **************************************************************
13 CRS-4404: The following nodes did not reply within the allotted time:
14 node2,node3, node4, node5, node6, node7, node8

The CRS-4404 was slightly misleading, I assumed all cluster nodes were down after a clusterwide reboot. Sometimes a single node reboot triggers worse things. However, logging on to node 2 I saw that all but the first node were ok.

CRSD really needs CSSD to be up and running, and CSSD requires the OCR to be there. I wanted to know if the OCR was impacted in any way:

[grid@node1.example.com] $ ocrcheck
PROT-602: Failed to retrieve data from the cluster registry
PROC-26: Error while accessing the physical storage
ORA-29701: unable to connect to Cluster Synchronization Service

Well it seemed that the OCR location was unavailable. I know that on this cluster, the OCR is stored on ASM. Common reasons for the PROC-26 error are

  • Unix admin upgrades the kernel but forgets to upgrade the ASMLib kernel module (common grief with ASMLib!)
  • Storage is not visible on the host, i.e. SAN connectivity broken/taken away (happens quite frequently with storage/sys admin unaware of ASM)
  • Permissions not set correctly on the block devices (not an issue when using asmlib)

I checked ASMLib and it reported a working status:

[oracle@node1.example.com] $ /etc/init.d/oracleasm status
Checking if ASM is loaded: yes
Checking if /dev/oracleasm is mounted: yes

That was promising, /dev/oracleasm/ was populated and the matching kernel modules loaded. /etc/init.d/oracleasm listdisks listed all my disks as well. Physical storage not accessible (PROC-26) seemed a bit unlikely now.

I could rule out permission problems since ASMLib was working fine, and I also rule out the kernel upgrade/missing libs problem by comparing the RPM with the kernel version: they matched. So maybe it’s storage related?

Why did the node go down?

Good question, usually to be asked towards the unix administration team. Luckily I have a good contact placed right inside that team and I could get the following excerpt from /var/log/messages arond the time of the crash (6:31 this morning):

01 Mar 17 06:26:06 node1 kernel: EXT3-fs error (device dm-2): ext3_free_blocks: Freeing blocks in system zones - Block = 8192116, count = 1
02 Mar 17 06:26:06 node1 kernel: Aborting journal on device dm-2.
03 Mar 17 06:26:06 node1 kernel: EXT3-fs error (device dm-2) in ext3_free_blocks_sb: Journal has aborted
04 Mar 17 06:26:06 node1 last message repeated 55 times
05 Mar 17 06:26:06 node1 kernel: EXT3-fs error (device dm-2): ext3_free_blocks: Freeing blocks in system zones - Block = 8192216, count = 1
06 Mar 17 06:26:06 node1 kernel: EXT3-fs error (device dm-2) in ext3_free_blocks_sb: Journal has aborted
07 Mar 17 06:26:06 node1 last message repeated 56 times
08 Mar 17 06:26:06 node1 kernel: EXT3-fs error (device dm-2): ext3_free_blocks: Freeing blocks in system zones - Block = 8192166, count = 1
09 Mar 17 06:26:06 node1 kernel: EXT3-fs error (device dm-2) in ext3_free_blocks_sb: Journal has aborted
10 Mar 17 06:26:06 node1 last message repeated 55 times
11 Mar 17 06:26:06 node1 kernel: EXT3-fs error (device dm-2): ext3_free_blocks: Freeing blocks in system zones - Block = 8192122, count = 1
12 Mar 17 06:26:06 node1 kernel: EXT3-fs error (device dm-2) in ext3_free_blocks_sb: Journal has aborted
13 Mar 17 06:26:06 node1 last message repeated 55 times
14 Mar 17 06:26:06 node1 kernel: EXT3-fs error (device dm-2): ext3_free_blocks: Freeing blocks in system zones - Block = 8192140, count = 1
15 Mar 17 06:26:06 node1 kernel: EXT3-fs error (device dm-2) in ext3_free_blocks_sb: Journal has aborted
16 Mar 17 06:26:06 node1 last message repeated 56 times
17 Mar 17 06:26:06 node1 kernel: EXT3-fs error (device dm-2): ext3_free_blocks: Freeing blocks in system zones - Block = 8192174, count = 1
18 Mar 17 06:26:06 node1 kernel: EXT3-fs error (device dm-2) in ext3_free_blocks_sb: Journal has aborted
19 Mar 17 06:26:06 node1 last message repeated 10 times
20 Mar 17 06:26:06 node1 kernel: EXT3-fs error (device dm-2) in ext3_reserve_inode_write: Journal has aborted
21 Mar 17 06:26:06 node1 kernel: EXT3-fs error (device dm-2) in ext3_truncate: Journal has aborted
22 Mar 17 06:26:06 node1 kernel: EXT3-fs error (device dm-2) in ext3_reserve_inode_write: Journal has aborted
23 Mar 17 06:26:06 node1 kernel: EXT3-fs error (device dm-2) in ext3_orphan_del: Journal has aborted
24 Mar 17 06:26:06 node1 kernel: EXT3-fs error (device dm-2) in ext3_reserve_inode_write: Journal has aborted
25 Mar 17 06:26:06 node1 kernel: EXT3-fs error (device dm-2) in ext3_delete_inode: Journal has aborted
26 Mar 17 06:26:06 node1 kernel: __journal_remove_journal_head: freeing b_committed_data
27 Mar 17 06:26:06 node1 kernel: ext3_abort called.
28 Mar 17 06:26:06 node1 kernel: EXT3-fs error (device dm-2): ext3_journal_start_sb: Detected aborted journal
29 Mar 17 06:26:06 node1 kernel: Remounting filesystem read-only
30 Mar 17 06:26:06 node1 kernel: __journal_remove_journal_head: freeing b_committed_data
31 Mar 17 06:26:06 node1 snmpd[25651]: Connection from UDP: [127.0.0.1]:19030
32 Mar 17 06:26:06 node1 snmpd[25651]: Received SNMP packet(s) from UDP: [127.0.0.1]:19030
33 Mar 17 06:26:06 node1 snmpd[25651]: Connection from UDP: [127.0.0.1]:19030
34 Mar 17 06:26:06 node1 snmpd[25651]: Connection from UDP: [127.0.0.1]:41076
35 Mar 17 06:26:06 node1 snmpd[25651]: Received SNMP packet(s) from UDP: [127.0.0.1]:41076
36 Mar 17 06:26:09 node1 kernel: SysRq : Resetting
37 Mar 17 06:31:15 node1 syslogd 1.4.1: restart.

So it looks like a file system error triggered the reboot-I’m glad the box came back up ok on it’s own. The $GRID_HOME/log/hostname/alerthostname.log didn’t show anything specific to storage. Normally you would see that it starts counting a node down if it lost contact to the voting disks (in this case OCR and voting disks share the same diskgroup).

And why does Clusteware not start?

After some more investigation it seems there was no underlying problem with the storage, so I tried to manually start the cluster, traililng the ocssd.log file for possible clues.

[root@node1 ~]# crsctl start cluster
CRS-2672: Attempting to start ‘ora.cssd’ on ‘node1′
CRS-2674: Start of ‘ora.cssd’ on ‘node1′ failed
CRS-2679: Attempting to clean ‘ora.cssd’ on ‘node1′
CRS-2681: Clean of ‘ora.cssd’ on ‘node1′ succeeded
CRS-5804: Communication error with agent process
CRS-2672: Attempting to start ‘ora.cssdmonitor’ on ‘node1′
CRS-2676: Start of ‘ora.cssdmonitor’ on ‘node1′ succeeded
CRS-2672: Attempting to start ‘ora.cssd’ on ‘node1′

… the command eventually failed. The ocssd.log file showed this:

01 ...
02 2011-03-17 09:47:49.073: [GIPCHALO][1081923904] gipchaLowerProcessNode: no valid interfaces found to node for 10996354 ms, node 0x2aaab008a260 { host 'node4', haName 'CSS_lngdsu1-c1', srcLuid b04d4b7b-a7491097, dstLuid 00000000-00000000 numInf 0, contigSeq 0, lastAck 0, lastValidAck 0, sendSeq [61 : 61], createTime 10936224, flags 0x4 }
03 2011-03-17 09:47:49.084: [GIPCHALO][1081923904] gipchaLowerProcessNode: no valid interfaces found to node for 10996364 ms, node 0x2aaab008a630 { host 'node6', haName 'CSS_lngdsu1-c1', srcLuid b04d4b7b-2f6ece1c, dstLuid 00000000-00000000 numInf 0, contigSeq 0, lastAck 0, lastValidAck 0, sendSeq [61 : 61], createTime 10936224, flags 0x4 }
04 2011-03-17 09:47:49.113: [    CSSD][1113332032]clssgmWaitOnEventValue: after CmInfo State  val 3, eval 1 waited 0
05 2011-03-17 09:47:49.158: [    CSSD][1090197824]clssnmvDHBValidateNCopy: node 2, node2, has a disk HB, but no network HB, DHB has rcfg 176226183, wrtcnt, 30846440, LATS 10996434, lastSeqNo 30846437, uniqueness 1300108895, timestamp 1300355268/3605443434
06 2011-03-17 09:47:49.158: [    CSSD][1090197824]clssnmvDHBValidateNCopy: node 3, node3, has a disk HB, but no network HB, DHB has rcfg 176226183, wrtcnt, 31355257, LATS 10996434, lastSeqNo 31355254, uniqueness 1300344405, timestamp 1300355268/10388584
07 2011-03-17 09:47:49.158: [    CSSD][1090197824]clssnmvDHBValidateNCopy: node 4, node4, has a disk HB, but no network HB, DHB has rcfg 176226183, wrtcnt, 31372473, LATS 10996434, lastSeqNo 31372470, uniqueness 1297097908, timestamp 1300355268/3605182454
08 2011-03-17 09:47:49.158: [    CSSD][1090197824]clssnmvDHBValidateNCopy: node 5, node5, has a disk HB, but no network HB, DHB has rcfg 176226183, wrtcnt, 31384686, LATS 10996434, lastSeqNo 31384683, uniqueness 1297098093, timestamp 1300355268/3604696294
09 2011-03-17 09:47:49.158: [    CSSD][1090197824]clssnmvDHBValidateNCopy: node 6, node6, has a disk HB, but no network HB, DHB has rcfg 176226183, wrtcnt, 31388819, LATS 10996434, lastSeqNo 31388816, uniqueness 1297098327, timestamp 1300355268/3604712934
10 2011-03-17 09:47:49.158: [    CSSD][1090197824]clssnmvDHBValidateNCopy: node 7, node7, has a disk HB, but no network HB, DHB has rcfg 176226183, wrtcnt, 29612975, LATS 10996434, lastSeqNo 29612972, uniqueness 1297685443, timestamp 1300355268/3603054884
11 2011-03-17 09:47:49.158: [    CSSD][1090197824]clssnmvDHBValidateNCopy: node 8, node8, has a disk HB, but no network HB, DHB has rcfg 176226183, wrtcnt, 31203293, LATS 10996434, lastSeqNo 31203290, uniqueness 1297156000, timestamp 1300355268/3604855704
12 2011-03-17 09:47:49.161: [    CSSD][1085155648]clssnmvDHBValidateNCopy: node 3, node33, has a disk HB, but no network HB, DHB has rcfg 176226183, wrtcnt, 31355258, LATS 10996434, lastSeqNo 31355255, uniqueness 1300344405, timestamp 1300355268/10388624
13 2011-03-17 09:47:49.161: [    CSSD][1085155648]clssnmvDHBValidateNCopy: node 4, node4, has a disk HB, but no network HB, DHB has rcfg 176226183, wrtcnt, 31372474, LATS 10996434, lastSeqNo 31372471, uniqueness 1297097908, timestamp 1300355268/3605182494
14 2011-03-17 09:47:49.161: [    CSSD][1085155648]clssnmvDHBValidateNCopy: node 5, node5, has a disk HB, but no network HB, DHB has rcfg 176226183, wrtcnt, 31384687, LATS 10996434, lastSeqNo 31384684, uniqueness 1297098093, timestamp 1300355268/3604696304
15 2011-03-17 09:47:49.161: [    CSSD][1085155648]clssnmvDHBValidateNCopy: node 6, node6, has a disk HB, but no network HB, DHB has rcfg 176226183, wrtcnt, 31388821, LATS 10996434, lastSeqNo 31388818, uniqueness 1297098327, timestamp 1300355268/3604713224
16 2011-03-17 09:47:49.161: [    CSSD][1085155648]clssnmvDHBValidateNCopy: node 7, node7, has a disk HB, but no network HB, DHB has rcfg 176226183, wrtcnt, 29612977, LATS 10996434, lastSeqNo 29612974, uniqueness 1297685443, timestamp 1300355268/3603055224
17 2011-03-17 09:47:49.197: [    CSSD][1094928704]clssnmvDHBValidateNCopy: node 2, node2, has a disk HB, but no network HB, DHB has rcfg 176226183, wrtcnt, 30846441, LATS 10996474, lastSeqNo 30846438, uniqueness 1300108895, timestamp 1300355269/3605443654
18 2011-03-17 09:47:49.197: [    CSSD][1094928704]clssnmvDHBValidateNCopy: node 3, node3, has a disk HB, but no network HB, DHB has rcfg 176226183, wrtcnt, 31355259, LATS 10996474, lastSeqNo 31355256, uniqueness 1300344405, timestamp 1300355268/10389264
19 2011-03-17 09:47:49.197: [    CSSD][1094928704]clssnmvDHBValidateNCopy: node 8, node8, has a disk HB, but no network HB, DHB has rcfg 176226183, wrtcnt, 31203294, LATS 10996474, lastSeqNo 31203291, uniqueness 1297156000, timestamp 1300355269/3604855914
20 2011-03-17 09:47:49.619: [    CSSD][1116485952]clssnmSendingThread: sending join msg to all nodes
21 ...

The interesting bit is the “BUT NO NETWORK HB”, i.e. something must be wrong with the network configuration. I quickly checked the output of ifconfig and found a missing entry for my private interconnect. This is defined in the GPnP profile if you are unsure:

1 <gpnp:Network-Profile>
2  <gpnp:HostNetwork id="gen" HostName="*">
3  <gpnp:Network id="net1" IP="17x.xx.x9.1x0" Adapter="bond1.251" Use="cluster_interconnect" />
4  </gpnp:HostNetwork>
5 </gpnp:Network-Profile>

Now that’s a starting point! If tried to bring up bond1.251, but that failed:

[root@node1 network-scripts]# ifup bond1.251
ERROR: trying to add VLAN #251 to IF -:bond1:-  error: Invalid argument
ERROR: could not add vlan 251 as bond1.251 on dev bond1

The “invalid argument” didn’t mean too much to me, so I ran ifup with the “-x” flag to get more information about which argument was invalid:

01 [root@node1 network-scripts]# which ifup
02 /sbin/ifup
03 [root@node1 network-scripts]# view /sbin/ifup
04 # turned out it's a shell script! Let's run with debug output enabled
05 [root@node1 network-scripts]# bash -x /sbin/ifup bond1.251
06 + unset WINDOW
07 ...
08 + MATCH='^(eth|hsi|bond)[0-9]+\.[0-9]{1,4}$'
09 + [[ bond1.251 =~ ^(eth|hsi|bond)[0-9]+\.[0-9]{1,4}$ ]]
10 ++ echo bond1.251
11 ++ LC_ALL=C
12 ++ sed 's/^[a-z0-9]*\.0*//'
13 + VID=251
14 + PHYSDEV=bond1
15 + [[ bond1.251 =~ ^vlan[0-9]{1,4}? ]]
16 + '[' -n 251 ']'
17 + '[' '!' -d /proc/net/vlan ']'
18 + test -z ''
19 + VLAN_NAME_TYPE=DEV_PLUS_VID_NO_PAD
20 + /sbin/vconfig set_name_type DEV_PLUS_VID_NO_PAD
21 + is_available bond1
22 + LC_ALL=
23 + LANG=
24 + ip -o link
25 + grep -q bond1
26 + '[' 0 = 1 ']'
27 + return 0
28 + check_device_down bond1
29 + echo bond1
30 + grep -q :
31 + LC_ALL=C
32 + ip -o link
33 + grep -q 'bond1[:@].*,UP'
34 + return 1
35 + '[' '!' -f /proc/net/vlan/bond1.251 ']'
36 + /sbin/vconfig add bond1 251
37 ERROR: trying to add VLAN #251 to IF -:bond1:-  error: Invalid argument
38 + /usr/bin/logger -p daemon.info -t ifup 'ERROR: could not add vlan 251 as bond1.251 on dev bond1'
39 + echo 'ERROR: could not add vlan 251 as bond1.251 on dev bond1'
40 ERROR: could not add vlan 251 as bond1.251 on dev bond1
41 + exit 1

Hmmm so it seemed that the underlying interface bond1 was missing-which was true. The output of ifconfig didn’t show it as configured, and trying to start it manually using ifup bond1 failed as well. It turned out that the ifcfg-bond1 file was missing and had to be recreated from the documentation. All network configuration files in Red Hat based systems belong into /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-interfaceName. With the recreated file in place, I was back in the running:

[root@node1 network-scripts]# ll *bond1*
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 129 Mar 17 10:07 ifcfg-bond1
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 168 May 19  2010 ifcfg-bond1.251
[root@node1 network-scripts]# ifup bond1
[root@node1 network-scripts]# ifup bond1.251
Added VLAN with VID == 251 to IF -:bond1:-
[root@node1 network-scripts]#

Now I could try to start the lower stack again:

CRS-2672: Attempting to start ‘ora.cssdmonitor’ on ‘node1′
CRS-2676: Start of ‘ora.cssdmonitor’ on ‘node1′ succeeded
CRS-2672: Attempting to start ‘ora.cssd’ on ‘node1′
CRS-2676: Start of ‘ora.cssd’ on ‘node1′ succeeded
CRS-2672: Attempting to start ‘ora.cluster_interconnect.haip’ on ‘node1′
CRS-2672: Attempting to start ‘ora.ctssd’ on ‘node1′
CRS-2676: Start of ‘ora.ctssd’ on ‘node1′ succeeded
CRS-2672: Attempting to start ‘ora.evmd’ on ‘node1′
CRS-2676: Start of ‘ora.evmd’ on ‘node1′ succeeded
CRS-2676: Start of ‘ora.cluster_interconnect.haip’ on ‘node1′ succeeded
CRS-2679: Attempting to clean ‘ora.asm’ on ‘node1′
CRS-2681: Clean of ‘ora.asm’ on ‘node1′ succeeded
CRS-2672: Attempting to start ‘ora.asm’ on ‘node1′
CRS-2676: Start of ‘ora.asm’ on ‘node1′ succeeded
CRS-2672: Attempting to start ‘ora.crsd’ on ‘node1′
CRS-2676: Start of ‘ora.crsd’ on ‘node1′ succeeded
[root@node1 network-scripts]# crsctl check crs
CRS-4638: Oracle High Availability Services is online
CRS-4537: Cluster Ready Services is online
CRS-4529: Cluster Synchronization Services is online
CRS-4533: Event Manager is online

Brilliant-problem solved. This is actually the first time that an incorrect network config prevented a cluster I looked after from starting. The best indication in this case is in the gipcd log file, but it didn’t occur to me to have a look at is as the error was clearly related to storage.

Publicado em RAC, TUTORIAL | Marcado com , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Deixe um comentário

Lista completa de produtos Oracle para Download

Lista completa de produtos Oracle para Download separados por categoria.

Java


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Publicado em DOWNLOADS | Marcado com , , , , , , , , | Deixe um comentário

Faça um tour 3D nas Maquinas Exadata e todas outras máquinas e equipamentos ORACLE

Exadata/Exalogic 3D Demos

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 Exalogic X2-2

SPARC Servers and SuperCluster 3D Demos

 SPARC Enterprise M9000-64
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 SPARC SuperCluster T4-4
 SPARC T4-1B Server
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Sun x86 Servers and Database Appliance 3D Demos

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COMANDO DD NO LINUX

Usando o comando dd

Uns meses atrás, estudando para a LPI me deparei com o comando dd e resolvi compartilhar como faço o uso do mesmo.

O comando dd é um clássico dos ambientes Unix-Like, com ele você pode fazer uma cópia exata de um arquivo, ou seja uma cópia bit a bit. Sintaxe básica:

dd if=origem of=destino

Exemplo:

$ dd if=/home/felipe/Downloads/netbeans-6.9.1-ml-linux.sh of=/home/felipe/netbeans.sh
543986+0 registros de entrada
543986+0 registros de saída
278520832 bytes (279 MB) copiados, 11,7956 s, 23,6 MB/s

O que foi feito?

Foi feito uma cópia do arquivo “netbeans-6.9.1-ml-linux.sh”, localizado em “/home/felipe/Downloads/”, onde o arquivo copiado foi para /home/felipe, com o nome de netbeans.sh.

Cópia do HD para um arquivo:

# dd if=/dev/sda of=~/backup_hd.img

Será feita uma cópia exata do HD dentro do diretório do root com o nome “backup_hd.img”. Se quiser restaurar o “backp_hd.img” no /dev/sda2 (lembre que o sda2 deve ter pelo menos o mesmo tamanho do arquivo “backup.hd” se não os resultados poderão ser desastrosos):

# dd if=backup_hd.img of=/dev/sda2

Cópia de partição para o partição:

# dd if=/dev/sda9 of=/dev/sda11

Será feita cópia da partição /dev/sda9 para a /dev/sda11.

Fazendo uma cópia do HD para um arquivo compactado:

# dd if=/dev/sda1 | gzip > backup_hd.img.gz

e para descompactar:

# gzip -d -c backup_hd.img.gz | dd of=/dev/sda2

O comando acima está descompactando o arquivo beckup_hd.img.gz no HD em /dev/sda2.

Criar uma imagem ISO:

# dd if=diretorio of=iso_do_diretorio.iso

Para visualizar progresso de cópia de arquivos, vá em outro terminal e execute:

$ watch df -h

Para converter todos as letras maiúsculas de um documento para letras minúsculas:

$ dd if=ficheiro1 of=ficheiro2 conv=lcase

Se quisermos converter todas as letras do ficheiro2 para maiúsculas:

$ dd if=ficheiro2 of=ficheiro3 conv=ucase

Para zerar (formatar) o seu HD (use com cuidado!):

# dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hda

Gerar senhas de forma (pseudo) aleatória:

$ dd if=/dev/random bs=2 count=6 | base64 -
r2KWFW83e9nTniVR
6+0 registros de entrada
6+0 registros de saída
12 bytes (12 B) copiados, 0,000100641 s, 119 kB/s

Publicado em LINUX, TUTORIAL | Marcado com , , | Deixe um comentário

CRIAÇÃO DE DISCOS COMPARTILHADOS NO VIRTUAL BOX

VBoxManage createhd --filename c:\storage\asm1.vdi --size 5120 --format VDI --variant Fixed
VBoxManage createhd --filename c:\storage\asm2.vdi --size 5120 --format VDI --variant Fixed
VBoxManage createhd --filename c:\storage\asm3.vdi --size 5120 --format VDI --variant Fixed
VBoxManage createhd --filename c:\storage\asm4.vdi --size 5120 --format VDI --variant Fixed
VBoxManage createhd --filename c:\storage\asm5.vdi --size 5120 --format VDI --variant Fixed
VBoxManage createhd --filename c:\storage\ocr_vote.vdi --size 1024 --format VDI --variant Fixed

VBoxManage modifyhd c:\storage\asm1.vdi --type shareable
VBoxManage modifyhd c:\storage\asm2.vdi --type shareable
VBoxManage modifyhd c:\storage\asm3.vdi --type shareable
VBoxManage modifyhd c:\storage\asm4.vdi --type shareable
VBoxManage modifyhd c:\storage\asm5.vdi --type shareable
VBoxManage modifyhd c:\storage\ocr_vote.vdi --type shareable

—————————————————————————-

$ mkdir -p $HOME/VirtualBox\ VMs/harddisks
$ cd $HOME/VirtualBox\ VMs/harddisks
$
$ # Create the disks and associate them with VirtualBox as virtual media.
$ VBoxManage createhd --filename asm1.vdi --size 5120 --format VDI --variant Fixed
$ VBoxManage createhd --filename asm2.vdi --size 5120 --format VDI --variant Fixed
$ VBoxManage createhd --filename asm3.vdi --size 5120 --format VDI --variant Fixed
$ VBoxManage createhd --filename asm4.vdi --size 5120 --format VDI --variant Fixed
$ VBoxManage createhd --filename asm5.vdi --size 5120 --format VDI --variant Fixed
$
$ # Connect them to the VM.
$ VBoxManage storageattach rac1 --storagectl "SATA Controller" --port 1 --device 0 --type hdd --medium asm1.vdi --mtype shareable
$ VBoxManage storageattach rac1 --storagectl "SATA Controller" --port 2 --device 0 --type hdd --medium asm2.vdi --mtype shareable
$ VBoxManage storageattach rac1 --storagectl "SATA Controller" --port 3 --device 0 --type hdd --medium asm3.vdi --mtype shareable
$ VBoxManage storageattach rac1 --storagectl "SATA Controller" --port 4 --device 0 --type hdd --medium asm4.vdi --mtype shareable
$ VBoxManage storageattach rac1 --storagectl "SATA Controller" --port 5 --device 0 --type hdd --medium asm5.vdi --mtype shareable
$
$ # Make shareable.
$ VBoxManage modifyhd asm1.vdi --type shareable
$ VBoxManage modifyhd asm2.vdi --type shareable
$ VBoxManage modifyhd asm3.vdi --type shareable
$ VBoxManage modifyhd asm4.vdi --type shareable
$ VBoxManage modifyhd asm5.vdi --type shareable

———————————————————————————————————————————–
comando para clonar vm

VBoxManage clonehd c:\storage\disk2.vdi c:\storage\diskR2.vdi

=====================================================================================================================
$ # Following line for VirtualBox 4.0.0 upwards
$ cd $HOME/VirtualBox\ VMs/harddisks
$
$ # All versions (can omit “–mtype shareable” for versions below 4.0.0)
$ VBoxManage storageattach racbx2 –storagectl “SATA Controller” –port 1 –device 0 –type hdd –medium c:\storage\asm1.vdi –mtype shareable
$ VBoxManage storageattach racbx2 –storagectl “SATA Controller” –port 2 –device 0 –type hdd –medium c:\storage\asm2.vdi –mtype shareable
$ VBoxManage storageattach racbx2 –storagectl “SATA Controller” –port 3 –device 0 –type hdd –medium c:\storage\asm3.vdi –mtype shareable
$ VBoxManage storageattach racbx2 –storagectl “SATA Controller” –port 4 –device 0 –type hdd –medium c:\storage\asm4.vdi –mtype shareable
$ VBoxManage storageattach racbx2 –storagectl “SATA Controller” –port 5 –device 0 –type hdd –medium c:\storage\asm5.vdi –mtype shareable

===============================================================================================================================================
comando para montar volume compartilhado no virtual box.

mount -t vboxsf HARD_DISK /root/Desktop/share

mount -t vboxsf HARD_DISK /home/oracle/CDGRID

COMANDOS PARA INSTALAR VÁRIOS PACOTES AO MESMO TEMPO NO LINUX

rpm -Uvh unixODBC-devel-2.2.11-7.1.x86_64.rpm
oracleasm-kernel-version.arch.rpm \
oracleasmlib-version.arch.rpm

Publicado em LINUX, SHELL SCRIPT, VIRTUAL BOX | Marcado com , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Deixe um comentário

Configurando ssh no VirtualBox

Configurando ssh no VirtualBox

Para configurar o acesso ssh na minha máquina virtual executei os seguintes comandos:

1
$ VBoxManage setextradata <guestname> "VBoxInternal/Devices/pcnet/0/LUN#0/Config/ssh/HostPort" 2222
2
$ VBoxManage setextradata <guestname> "VBoxInternal/Devices/pcnet/0/LUN#0/Config/ssh/GuestPort" 22
3
$ VBoxManage setextradata <guestname> "VBoxInternal/Devices/pcnet/0/LUN#0/Config/ssh/Protocol" TCP

É necessário trocar <guestname> pelo nome da sua máquina virtual. E para acessar é só digitar:

1
$ ssh -l user -p 2222 localhost
É possível também ver as configurações feitas em sua máquina virtual, com o comando:

1
$ VBoxManage getextradata <guestname> enumerate

E para excluir as configurações:

1
$ VBoxManage setextradata <guestname> “VBoxInternal/Devices/pcnet/0/LUN#0/Config/ssh/GuestPort”

——————————————————————————————————

1
$ C:\Program Files\Oracle\VirtualBox\VBoxManage setextradata RACBOX1 "VBoxInternal/Devices/pcnet/0/LUN#0/Config/ssh/HostPort" 2222
2
$ C:\Program Files\Oracle\VirtualBox\VBoxManage setextradata RACBOX1 "VBoxInternal/Devices/pcnet/0/LUN#0/Config/ssh/GuestPort" 22
3
$ C:\Program Files\Oracle\VirtualBox\VBoxManage setextradata RACBOX1 "VBoxInternal/Devices/pcnet/0/LUN#0/Config/ssh/Protocol" TCP
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COMO REMOVER UMA INSTALAÇÃO DE RAC 11gR2 EM LINUX

Este script ajuda enquanto você está fazendo instalação do Oracle 11gr2 RAC e dá algo de errado e você tem que remover o software em ambiente Linux.

###############################################################
#!/bin/bash
# Purpose : Cleanup RAC 11g failed install
###############################################################

clear

echo “********************************”
echo “*** Removendo Oracle Rac 11g ***”
echo “********************************”

rm -f  /etc/init.d/init.cssd
rm -f  /etc/init.d/init.crs
rm -f  /etc/init.d/init.crsd
rm -f  /etc/init.d/init.evmd
rm -f  /etc/rc2.d/K96init.crs
rm -f  /etc/rc2.d/S96init.crs
rm -f  /etc/rc3.d/K96init.crs
rm -f  /etc/rc3.d/S96init.crs
rm -f  /etc/rc5.d/K96init.crs
rm -f  /etc/rc5.d/S96init.crs
rm -f /etc/rc2.d/S96ohasd
rm -f /etc/rc2.d/K96ohasd
rm -f /etc/rc3.d/S96ohasd
rm -f /etc/rc3.d/K96ohasd
rm -f /etc/rc5.d/S96ohasd
rm -f /etc/rc5.d/K96ohasd
rm -f  /etc/inittab.crs
rm -rf /u01/app
rm -rf /u01/grid
rm -rf /u01/lost+found
rm -rf /u01/oraInventory
rm -rf /u01/tmp
rm -f  /etc/oraInst.loc
rm -f  /etc/oratab
rm -rf /etc/oracle
cp /etc/inittab.orig /etc/inittab

echo ” ”

echo “********************************************”
echo “*** Reconfigurando pastas Oracle Rac 11g ***”
echo “********************************************”

mkdir -p /u01/app/product/11.2.0/db_1
mkdir -p /u01/grid/product/11.2.0/grid_1
mkdir -p /u01/tmp
chown -R oracle.oinstall /u01
chmod -R 775 /u01
############################  END ###############################

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Configurando a rede no Linux via linha de comando

Configurando a Rede no Linux via linha de comando

Bem, seja qual for o ambiente gráfico que você use ou distribuição, existem comandos do próprio sistema GNU/Linux que são comuns a todas elas, deste modo exporei aqui como usar elas para configurar rapidamente sua interface de rede.

Para configurar uma rede, você precisa de 4 elementos IP, máscara da rede, gateway e DNS.

Configuração automática

Se você souber esses dados é fácil, se não souber ou quiser detectá-los automaticamente você pode usar o comando:

# dhcpcd
ou
# dhcpcd ethX

(onde X é o número de sua interface de rede, caso você possua mais de uma placa de rede)

Configuração manual

Para configurar manualmente você precisa apenas dos comandos ifconfig (define as configurações da sua placa de rede) e route(controla o roteamento de pacotes, como os dados saem da sua rede).

Antes de mais nada, vamos ver se sua placa de rede foi reconhecida pelo Linux.

Para ver se sua placa está ativa digite:

# ifconfig

Para ver se o sistema a reconheceu:

# lspci 
ou
# lsusb

(se sua placa for usb)

Procure pela palavra “Ethernet”, normalmente ou similar:

# ifconfig -a

Se o seu sistema detectou sua placa de rede, ela deve aparecer listada seja pelo lspci/lsusb ou ifconfig.

Para configurar a rede, vejamos a sintaxe dos comandos que usaremos e em seguida darei um exemplo prático.

ifconfig [identificador da placa de rede] [IP] netmask [IP mask] up

route add default gw [IP]

OBS: Existem outros meios para fazer tais operações de configuração com o route e o ifconfig, para isso leia o manual de tais comandos.

Exemplo prático

Vamos supor que eu tenha uma rede com 3 computadores, 1 sendo o gateway do meu sistema, que possui, claro, duas placas de rede.

IPs dos 3 computadores: 10.0.0.1 , 10.0.0.2, 10.0.0.3
Máscara: 255.255.0.0
DNS: 200.192.168.1
Gateway: 10.0.0.1

1° PC

No terminal como root:

# ifconfig eth0 10.0.0.3 netmask 255.255.0.0 up
# route add default gw 10.0.0.1

2° PC

No terminal como root:

# ifconfig eth0 10.0.0.2 netmask 255.255.0.0 up
# route add default gw 10.0.0.1

3° PC – Gateway com duas placas de rede

No terminal como root:

# ifconfig eth0 10.0.0.1 netmask 255.255.0.0 up
# ifconfig eth1 200.17.11.1 netmask 255.255.255.0 up

# route add default gw 10.0.0.1 eth0
# route add default gw 200.17.11.2 eth1

Por último, para configurar o DNS, edite o arquivo /etc/resolv.conf de cada máquina e preencha da seguinte maneira:

nameserver 200.192.168.1
Repare que você pode configurar infinitos DNS, tantos quantos queira :-)

Para adicionar mais um por exemplo, só adicionamos 1 linha:

nameserver 200.192.168.1
nameserver 200.128.68.20
Muito bem? Espero que ninguém mais tenha dificuldades em configurar uma rede no Linux com isso :-)

PS: Se você estava era querendo saber como configurar a rede via conexão discada com o modem no Linux e chegou aqui por acaso, um bom lugar para começar é linmodems.org. Lá há grande chances que você encontre o drive para seu modem por lá.

Pronto.

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Sequência de Inicialização do Oracle RAC 11gR2

ohasd -> orarootagent -> ora.cssdmonitor : Monitors CSSD and node health (along with the cssdagent). Try to restart the node if the node is unhealthy.

                                    -> ora.ctssd : Cluster Time Synchronization Services Daemon

                                    -> ora.crsd   -> oraagent  -> ora.LISTENER.lsnr

-> ora.LISTENER_SCAN.lsnr

-> ora.ons

-> ora.eons

-> ora.asm

-> ora.DB.db

 

->orarootagent -> ora.nodename.vip

                                                                                 -> ora.net1.network

                                                                                 -> ora.gns.vip

                                                                                 -> ora.gnsd

                                                                                 -> ora.SCANn.vip

 

-> cssdagent -> ora.cssd : Cluster Synchronization Services

 

 

-> oraagent -> ora.mdnsd : Used for DNS lookup
-> ora.evmd

-> ora.asmd

-> ora.gpnpd : Grid Plug and Play = adding a node to the cluster is easier (we need less configuration for the new node)

 

 

If a resource is written using blue & bold font => resource owned by root. The other resources are owner by oracle. (all this on UNIX environment)

When a resource is managed by root, we need to run the command crsctl as root or oracle.

 

 

Clusterware Resource Status Check

 

$ crsctl status resource -t

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
NAME                  TARGET  STATE      SERVER            STATE_DETAILS
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Local Resources
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ora.LISTENER.lsnr    

                      ONLINE  ONLINE    tzdev1rac
ONLINE  ONLINE    tzdev2rac
ora.asm              

                      OFFLINE OFFLINE   tzdev1rac
OFFLINE OFFLINE   tzdev2rac
ora.eons             

                      ONLINE  ONLINE    tzdev1rac
ONLINE  ONLINE    tzdev2rac
ora.gsd
OFFLINE OFFLINE   tzdev1rac
OFFLINE OFFLINE   tzdev2rac
ora.net1.network
ONLINE  ONLINE    tzdev1rac
ONLINE  ONLINE    tzdev2rac
ora.ons
ONLINE  ONLINE    tzdev1rac
ONLINE  ONLINE    tzdev2rac
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cluster Resources
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ora.LISTENER_SCAN1.lsnr
1                     ONLINE  ONLINE    tzdev1rac
ora.LISTENER_SCAN2.lsnr
1                     ONLINE  ONLINE    tzdev2rac
ora.LISTENER_SCAN3.lsnr
1                     ONLINE  ONLINE    tzdev2rac
ora.oc4j
1                     OFFLINE OFFLINE
ora.scan1.vip
1                     ONLINE  ONLINE    tzdev1rac
ora.scan2.vip
1                     ONLINE  ONLINE    tzdev2rac
ora.scan3.vip
1                     ONLINE  ONLINE    tzdev2rac
ora.trezor.db
1                     ONLINE  ONLINE    tzdev1rac         Open
2                     ONLINE  ONLINE    tzdev2rac
ora.tzdev1rac.vip
1                     ONLINE  ONLINE    tzdev1rac
ora.tzdev2rac.vip
1                     ONLINE  ONLINE    tzdev2rac

 

crsctl start has    -> start all the clusterware services/ resources (including the database server and the listener);
crsctl stop has    
-> stop all the clusterware services/ resources (including the database server and the listener);

 

crsctl check has -> to check if ohasd is running/ stopped

 

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Como aumentar o tamanho do disco no Virtual Box

  • Nos passos abaixo, explicarei com detalhes como aumentar o tamanho do seu disco virtual (.vdi):

[Post escrito e testado baseado no VirtualBox 3.2.6]

1º passo: Criar um novo disco com um espaço maior.

Para isso, abra o gerenciador de disco virtual ou o virtual disk manager e crie um novo disco.

Para os exemplos a seguir, eu criei o disco novoDisco30GB.vdi

2º passo: Escolher a máquina virtual com o disco a ser modificado

Ao decidir qual vm terá seu disco alterado, certifique-se que ela está desligada e entre nas configurações da VM. Vá até a categoria storage ou armazenamento:

O objetivo é fazer com que a vm fique com 2 discos. No meu exemplo utilizei a controladora SATA. Mas funciona da mesma forma para que utiliza controladora IDE. Basta colocar o segundo disco como IDE Primary Slave.

3º passo: Fazer o download da imagem .iso do Gparted live cd

Acesse a url: http://sourceforge.net/projects/gparted/ e baixe a ultima versão da imagem .iso

O Gparted é um editor de partição gratuito, que vamos usar para redimensionar as partições conforme desejarmos.

4º passo: Adicionar o liveCD Gparted na maquina virtual

Adicione o .iso na sua vm de forma que fique assim:

Para quem usa controlador IDE, basta adicionar na posição IDE Secondary Master.

Certifique-se também que a ordem de boot da sua VM está com o CD-Rom antes do HD:

5º passo: Iniciar a VM pelo LiveCD do GParted

Ligue a VM e inicie escolhendo a opção do GParted:

Ele irá oferecer alguma opções de formato do teclado e linguagem. Você pode ir pelas configuraões padrões apertando “ENTER” em todas as opções oferecidas até chegar na tela do sistema:

6º passo: Verificar os nomes dos discos

Assim que o GParted iniciar, o programa já deve vir aberto. Se não estiver em execução, você pode inicar o GParted pelo icone na área de trabalho.

Depois disso, você precisa anotar os nomes dos discos:

Então, no próximo passo nós iremos copiar todo o conteúdo do disco /dev/sda (20 GB) para o /dev/sdb (30 GB).

7º passo: Transferindo os dados de um disco para o outro

Antes de fazer a cópia, certifique-se de ter fechado o programa do GParted. Agora abra o terminal, clicando no icone na área de trabalho.

Agora, basta rodar o comando:
sudo dd if=/dev/sda of=/dev/sdb

Atenção: Tenha certeza que está fazendo a cópia certa. if é o caminho do disco de origem, neste caso o sda que é o de 20GB. E of é o caminho do disco de destino, neste caso o sdb que é o de 30GB.

Dependendo do tamanho do disco, esse processo pode demorar um pouco. Para testar o meu exemplo, levou cerca de 22 minutos para transferir todo o hd de 20GB para o de 30GB.

8º passo: Redimensionar a partição do novo disco

Feito o passo anterior, feche o terminal e reinicie a vm, abrindo pelo liveCD do GParted novamente. Essa reinicialização não é obrigatória, mas serve para evitar problemas no novo disco, já que por algum motivo o GParted fica reclamando de que nao consegue ler os dados da nova partição.

Bom, depois de reiniciar, vamos redimensionar o novo HD.

Se for uma VM windows, basta clicar com o botão direito sobre o /dev/sdb1 e clicar em redimensionar / resize e arrastar a partição até preencher todo o espaço disponível:

Depois disso basta apertar em aplicar e pular para o próximo passo…

No meu caso, estou redimensionando em um HD com linux, então entre a partição do sistema e o espaço disponível tem a partição do swap.

Para poder redimensionar o disco, você precisa remover o “swap” que está em nosso caminho.

Depois de deletar o swap, clique com o botão direito e depois em redimensionar / resize para chegar na tela abaixo:

Arraste o tamanho do disco até o limite desejado. Lembre-se de deixar um pouco de espaço para recriar o swap novamente. Geralmente o swap é criado com o dobro do tamanho da memória da máquina.

Depois de aumentar a partição primária, crie no espaço que sobrou uma partição estendida, onde iremos definir o novo swap.

Criado a partição estendida, crie dentro dela uma partição lógica com o file-system “linux swap”

Pronto. Terminamos de redimensionar o disco.

Agora basta aplicar as modificações e esperar um pouco.

Feito isso, já podemos desligar a vm.

9º passo: Ligar a VM com o novo disco

Remova o disco antigo da vm, remova o cd de boot e depois ligue a vm com o novo disco !

Agora, basta aproveitar a sua VM com um disco maior

OBS: Caso você esteja usando Unbuto será necessátio trocar o uuid (id do disco) do swap.

Como fizemos algumas modificações nas partições, esses ids mudaram. Então precisaremos editar o arquivo /etc/fstab .

 

Com o comando: ls -la /dev/disk/by-uuid/ você pode listar os novos ids e a onde eles estão montados.

Nesse caso, basta atualizar o arquivo fstab com o uuid do disco em sda1 e depois em sda5.

Reinicie a VM e estará tudo funcionando corretamente.

Publicado em LINUX, TUTORIAL, VIRTUAL BOX | Marcado com , , , , | Deixe um comentário

COMO AUMENTAR A AREA SWAP NO LINUX

Este artigo visa resolver o problema de pessoas que estão com pouca memória física ou por algum motivo precisam aumentar o tamanho de sua partição SWAP.

NOTA: Esta solução adiciona ao tamanho do SWAP que já existe o tamanho que você definir, então se você tem 500MB e adicionar mais 500MB, logo ficara com 1GB de SWAP.1) Primeiramente, vamos ver quanto temos de SWAP:# free 

OBS: Neste artigo usaremos o seguinte exemplo, uma máquina com 300MB iniciais de SWAP e aumentaremos para 800MB, mas você pode usar este exemplo e redimensionar seu SWAP a seu gosto, desde que tenha espaço em HD para isso.

2) Em seguida iremos criar um diretório no / (raiz) com o nome de swap:

# mkdir swap 

3) Agora criaremos a swap propriamente dita:

# cd swap 

4) Já que temos 300MB, teremos que adicionar 500MB, então faça a seqüência:

# dd if=/dev/zero of=/swap/swapfile bs=1024 count=500000
500000+0 records in
500000+0 records out
# mkswap /swap/swapfile 
Setting up swapspace version 1, size = 509595904 bytes
# swapon /swap/swapfile
Pronto, agora vamos ver se rolou:# free 5) Vamos adicionar agora a nova entrada no FSTAB para montar no boot:

# cd /etc
# vi fstab** Acrescentamos a linha embaixo da outra palavra swap do FSTAB 
/swap/swapfile swap swap defaults 0 0
Salve e saia do FSTAB.Pronto está feito, você acabou de aumentar sua SWAP.Se quiser voltar ao tamanho original, delete o arquivo que esta em /swap e remova a linha do /etc/fstab.

—–

COMO ALTERAR O NOME DO SWAP

o comando mkswap -L  muda o nome da partição de SWAP.

No nosso caso o novo nome será SWAP-i2o/hda3 presumindo que a fisicamente está na partição /dev/hd3

Será necessário executar o seguinte comando para criar o novo nome de partição SWAP:

/sbin/mkswap -c -v1 -L SWAP-i2o/hdb3 /dev/i2o/hdb3

Depois voce precisará editar /etc/fstab para incluir a seguinte linha:

LABEL=SWAP-i2o/hdb3 swap swap defaults 0 0

Executar o comando swapon -a

Pronto, agora sua partição esta com outro nome.

Publicado em LINUX, TUTORIAL | Marcado com , , , , , | Deixe um comentário

CONFIGURANDO SSH NO WINDOWS

O SSH é uma ferramenta que dispensa comentários. Além se permitir administrar máquinas Linux remotamente e transferir arquivos de forma segura, ele pode ser usado para rodar programas gráficos remotamente, criar túneis criptografados e até mesmo fazer backups, com a ajuda do rsync.

O SSH é como um iceberg: mais de 90% dos recursos estão escondidos sob a superfície ;). Você pode se aprofundar no uso do SSH no meu guia de acesso remoto (http://www.hardware.com.br/guias/acesso-remoto/). A dica de hoje é sobre como acessar máquinas Linux, com o SSH ativo através do Windows.

Existem diversas versões do SSH. A maioria das distribuições Linux inclui o OpenSSH, que não possui um cliente for Windows. No entanto, isso não chega a ser um problema, pois o SSH é um protocolo aberto, o que permite o desenvolvimento de clientes para várias plataformas, inclusive Windows. Eles são usados por muita gente para administrar servidores Linux remotamente.

Um exemplo de cliente simples e gratuito é o Putty, que inclui também o PSFTP, um cliente de SFTP, que permite também transferir arquivos usando comandos de transferência como put, get, cd, lcd, pwd, lpwd, etc. Ambos podem ser baixados no: http://www.putty.nl/.

Usar o Putty para se conectar a servidores Linux é bem simples, pois ele não precisa sequer ser instalado. Basta baixar o arquivo e executar.

index_html_m23effb76

O putty também permite criar túneis. Comece colocando o IP ou domínio do servidor a que vai se conectar no campo “Host Name (or IP address)” na tela principal, como se estivesse abrindo uma conexão normal. Mas, ao invés de clicar no “open”, acesse a opção “Connection > SSH > Tunels”.

Na “source port” vai a porta do seu micro, que receberá o túnel (3128, por exemplo) e no “Destination” vai o endereço IP ou domínio do servidor remoto a que você está se conectando, seguido da porta, como em “meuservidor.com.br:3128″. Clique no “Add” (você pode adicionar várias portas) e em seguida no “Open”, para abrir a conexão.

index_html_53132bcc

Outro exemplo de cliente SSH é a versão da SSH Security, que possui vários recursos mas é gratuita apenas para universidades e usuários domésticos e por isso bem menos usado. O link é: http://www.ssh.com.

O Putty, o SSH da SSH Security e o OpenSSH são intercompatíveis. A grande limitação é que esses dois clientes são limitados ao modo texto, pois, para exibir aplicativos gráficos via SSH, é necessário que o sistema cliente possua um servidor X, coisa que o Windows naturalmente não possui nativamente. Ao tentar abrir qualquer aplicativo gráfico, você recebe a fatídica mensagem “cannot connect to X server”.

Também não existem servidores SSH “de verdade” para Windows, que permitam administrar um servidor Windows remotamente. As soluções se “servidores” SSH para Windows se concentram nos recursos de encriptação para transferências de arquivos e criação de túneis.

Voltando ao tema principal, existem alguns servidores X para Windows, que abrem uma sessão do X dentro de uma janela, como o X-Win32 (http://xwin32.dk) e o WinaXe (um Shareware de 90 dólares que pode ser baixado no http://labf.com). O Putty pode ser configurado para utilizar um desses servidores (de forma a rodar aplicativos gráficos), marcando a opção “Enable X11 forwarding”, em “Connection > SSH > Tunnels”. Embora não seja uma solução muito elegante, realmente funciona:

index_html_m30f1eee3

Mas, a melhor opção para rodar aplicativos gráficos via SSH no Windows é o Cliente NX, que (uma vez configurado o servidor) é muito mais simples de usar e oferece uma performance muito melhor que a obtida ao rodar aplicativos gráficos através do SSH “puro”, graças às várias otimizações utilizadas.

Você pode baixar o cliente NX for Windows no http://nomachine.com. No site, você pode fazer um “testdrive”, acessando um dos servidores da empresa. O NX trabalha sobre o SSH, implementando um conjunto de otimizações para reduzir o tráfego e a latência das conexões. O resultado é algo similar ao VNC, mas com um desempenho bem melhor. Ao contrário do putty, no NX tudo é feito através de um cliente gráfico:

index_html_m7f47465b

Na hora de transferir arquivos via SFTP, uma boa opção é o Filezilla, um cliente de FTP gráfico e bastante amigável, que inclui suporte ao SFTP. Você pode baixá-lo no: http://filezilla.sourceforge.net/

Para conectar a servidores SSH, use a opção “File > Site Manager > New Site” (os campos na tela principal servem apenas para servidores FTP). Na tela seguinte, informe o IP do servidor, a porta (22) e a conta de acesso. Uma vez conectado, você acesso os arquivos usando a interface tradicional dos clientes de FTP, com as duas janelas, uma mostrando os arquivos locais e outra mostrando os do servidor. Para transferir arquivos, basta arrastá-los entre as duas.

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COMPONENTES DO ORACLE 11gR2 CLUSTERWARE

1) Cluster Ready Services (CRS)

 

          FunctionalityRAC resource monitoring/ management   ==> all changes are written in the OCR

- start, stop of the resouces

- failover of the application resources

- node recovery

 – automatically restarts t RAC resources when a failure occurs.

RAC resources: a database, an instance, a service, a listener, a virtual IP (VIP) address, an application process

 

 

Daemon process (on AIX, UNIX, Linux):  crsd

 

Run as (on AIX, UNIX, Linux): root

 

ps -ef | grep crsd
root 221524 1 0 May 26 – 3:33 /oracle/crs/10.2/bin/crsd.bin reboot
 

Failure of the process: the crsd restarts automatically, without restarting the node.

 

 

CRSd can run in 2 modes:

  

     reboot mode -> when crsd starts all the resources are restarted.

  

     restart mode -> when crsd starts the resources are started as these were before the shutdown.

 

   When CRS is installed on the cluster where a 3rd-party clusterware is integrated (there are 2 clusterware on the cluster)

 

-> CRSd manages:

-  Oracle RAC services and resources

 

 

When CRS is the ONLY ONE clusterware on the cluster

 

-> CRSd manages:

-  Oracle RAC services and resources

 the node membership functionality  (by CSSd, but CSS in managed by CRSd)

 

 

   COMMENT:

In order to start the crsd we need:

- the public interface, the private interface and the virtual IP (VIP) should be up and running !

- these IPs must be pingable to each other.

 

 

 

2) Cluster Synchronization Services (CSS)

 

Functionalityenables basic cluster services    ==> new/ lost node information is written to OCR

 

                                   - the node membership functionality

- basic locking

 

Daemon process (on AIX, UNIX, Linux):  ocssd

 

Run as (on AIX, UNIX, Linux): oracle


ps -ef | grep ocssd
oracle 229642 241940 1 May 26 – 3:36 /oracle/crs/10.2/bin/ocssd.bin
Failure of the process: Node restart.

 

 

 

3) Event Management (EVM)

 

Functionality: – a background process that publishes events that crs creates.

 

Daemon process (on AIX, UNIX, Linux):  evmd

Run as (on AIX, UNIX, Linux): oracle


ps -ef | grep evmd
oracle 229633 241356 1 May 26 – 3:36 /oracle/crs/10.2/bin/evmd.bin
Failure of the process: the evmd restarts automatically, without restarting the node.

 

 

 

4) Oracle Notification Service (ONS)

 

Functionality: – a publish and subscribe service for communicating Fast Application Notification (FAN) events to clients.

 

Daemon process (on AIX, UNIX, Linux):  ons

Run as (on AIX, UNIX, Linux): oracle


ps -ef | grep ons
oracle 233968 1 0 May 28 – 0:00 /oracle/crs/10.2/opmn/bin/ons -d
Failure of the process:  -

 

 

 

5) RACG

 

Functionality: – Runs server callout scripts when FAN events occur.

 

Daemon process (on AIX, Linux):  racgimon (AIX), racgmain (Linux)

Run as (on AIX, UNIX, Linux): oracle


ps -ef | grep racgimon
oracle 385292 1 0 11:40:08 – 0:03 /oracle/db/10.2/bin/racgimon startd MYDB

Failure of the process:  -

 

 

 

6) Process Monitor Daemon (OPROCD)    (cssdagent from 11gR2)

 

Functionality: – is the I/O fencing solution which monitors the Cluster Node (I/O fencing )

- when the Nx node fails, no other node can modify the Nx node resources

 

Daemon process (on AIX, Linux):  racgimon (AIX), racgmain (Linux)

Run as (on AIX, UNIX, Linux): root


ps -ef | grep oprocd
root 184346 201058 0 May 27 – 0:06 /oracle/crs/10.2/bin/oprocd run -t 1000 -m 400

COMMENT: In this case oprocd wakes up every minute to get the current time. If it is within 400ms range with the last result it will go back to sleep again otherwise it will reboot the node.

 

Failure of the process:  Node restart (=node reboot).

Publicado em RAC | Marcado com , , , , , , , , , | Deixe um comentário

NOVOS COMANDOS DE CUSTER RAC 11gR2

11gr2 CRS Commands
STOP CLUSTER SERVICES

./crsctl stop cluster -all
./crsctl stop cluster

START CLUSTER SERVICES

./crsctl start cluster -all
./crsctl start cluster

CHECK CLUSTER SERVICES

./crsctl check cluster -all
./crsctl check cluster

./crsctl stat res -t -init

START HIGH AVAILABILITY SERVICES

crsctl start has
crsctl enable has -> enable Oracle High Availability Services autostart

crsctl config has -> check if Oracle High Availability Services autostart is enabled/ disabled.
STOP HIGH AVAILABILITY SERVICES

crsctl stop has

crsctl disable has -> disable Oracle High Availability Services autostart
CHECK RESOURCE STATUS

crsctl status resource -t

Publicado em PLSQL SCRIPTS, RAC | Marcado com , , , , , , , , | Deixe um comentário

COMANDOS PARA CONFIGURAR O ORACLE GRID CONTROL

*no sqlplus como sys

drop user sysman cascade;
drop public synonym SETEMVIEWUSERCONTEXT;
drop role MGMT_USER;
drop PUBLIC SYNONYM MGMT_TARGET_BLACKOUTS;
drop user MGMT_VIEW;
drop tablespace MGMT_TABLESPACE including contents and datafiles; 
drop tablespace MGMT_ECM_DEPOT_TS including contents and datafiles;
set termout off feedb off trimsp on lin 9999 head off echo off 
spool /tmp/dropsysmanpublicsynonym.sql 
select 'drop public synonym '||synonym_name||';' ddl from dba_synonyms where table_owner='SYSMAN'; 
spool off 
set termout on feedb on echo on 
@/tmp/dropsysmanpublicsynonym

no so

****emca -config dbcontrol db -repos recreate
emca -deconfig dbcontrol db -cluster -repos drop
emca -config dbcontrol db -repos create -cluster

emca -deconfig all db -cluster
emca -deconfig all db -repos drop -cluster

emca -config dbcontrol db -repos recreate -cluster

emca -config dbcontrol db -repos recreate -cluster -CLUSTER_NAME crs -DB_UNIQUE_NAME ALEAP -PORT 1521 -EMAIL_ADDRESS dba@ALE.COM.br -MAIL_SERVER_NAME mailx.XAN.org.br -ASM_OH /oracle/product/asm -ASM_USER_ROLE SYSDBA -ASM_USER_NAME sys -ASM_PORT 1521 -NODE_LIST ALE-db-001,ALE-db-002,ALE-db-003

emca -config dbcontrol db -repos create -cluster -CLUSTER_NAME crs -DB_UNIQUE_NAME ALEAP -PORT 1521 -EMAIL_ADDRESS dba@ALE.COM.br-MAIL_SERVER_NAME mailx.XAN.org.br -ASM_OH /oracle/product/asm -ASM_USER_ROLE SYSDBA -ASM_USER_NAME sys -ASM_PORT 1521 -NODE_LIST ALE-db-001,ALE-db-002,ALE-db-003

emca -config dbcontrol db -repos create -cluster -CLUSTER_NAME crs -DB_UNIQUE_NAME ALEAP -PORT 1521 -EMAIL_ADDRESS dba@ALE.COM.br -MAIL_SERVER_NAME mailx.XAN.org.br -ASM_OH /oracle/product/asm -ASM_USER_ROLE SYSDBA -ASM_USER_NAME sys -ASM_PORT 1521 -NODE_LIST ALE-db-001,ALE-db-002,ALE-db-003

*********para mostrar destinos do agente

emctl config agent listtargets

********* para mostrar configuração do cluster

emca -displayConfig dbcontrol -cluster

********* para adicionar instance no console

emca -addInst db

cd <AGENT_HOME>/bin
agentca -d -c “node1,node2…” [-t -i <path to oraInst.loc> -n CLUSTER_NAME]

agentca -d -c "ALE-db-001,ALE-db-002,ALE-db-003"

HOST: Database hostname
SID: Database SID
PORT: Listener port number
ORACLE_HOME: Database ORACLE_HOME
HOST_USER: Host username for automatic backup
HOST_USER_PWD: Host user password for automatic backup
BACKUP_SCHEDULE: Automatic backup schedule (HH:MM)
EMAIL_ADDRESS: Email address for notifications
MAIL_SERVER_NAME: Outgoing Mail (SMTP) server for notifications
ASM_OH: ASM ORACLE_HOME
ASM_SID: ASM SID
ASM_PORT: ASM port
ASM_USER_ROLE: ASM user role
ASM_USER_NAME: ASM username
ASM_USER_PWD: ASM user password
SRC_OH: ORACLE_HOME for the database to be upgraded
DBSNMP_PWD: Password for DBSNMP user
SYSMAN_PWD: Password for SYSMAN user
SYS_PWD: Password for SYS user
DBCONTROL_HTTP_PORT: Database Control HTTP port
AGENT_PORT: EM agent port
RMI_PORT: RMI port for Database Control
JMS_PORT: JMS port for Database Control

CLUSTER_NAME: Cluster name
DB_UNIQUE_NAME: Database unique name
SERVICE_NAME: Service name
EM_NODE: Database Control node name
EM_SID_LIST: Agent SID list [comma separated]
**********************************************************************************

Database ORACLE_HOME ……………. /oracle/product/app/10R2/db
Database instance hostname ……………. XAN-db-001
Listener port number ……………. 1521
Cluster name ……………. crs
Database unique name ……………. ALEAP
Email address for notifications …………… dba@ALEX.COM.br
Outgoing Mail (SMTP) server for notifications …………… mail.ALEX.org.br
ASM ORACLE_HOME ……………. /oracle/product/asm
ASM port ……………. 1521
ASM user role ……………. SYSDBA
ASM username ……………. SYS

*****************************OUTRO LADO*******************************

Database ORACLE_HOME ……………. /oracle/product/app/10R2/db
Database instance hostname ……………. XAN-db-001
Listener port number ……………. 1521
Cluster name ……………. crs
Database unique name ……………. SPCAP
Email address for notifications …………… dba@ALEX.br
Outgoing Mail (SMTP) server for notifications …………… mailx.XAN.org.br
ASM ORACLE_HOME ……………. /oracle/product/asm
ASM port ……………. 1521
ASM user role ……………. SYSDBA
ASM username ……………. SYS

ps -ef |grep java

Caso tenha alterado o horário e nao subir mais, pode seyr o Time zone
Nesse caso colocar a variavel TZ = o valor que etiver em /etc/sysconfig/clock

ex: export TZ=Brasil/East

Obs: Colocar essa variável no profile!

Fazer isso em todos os nós do RAC

lista de timezone oracle
/oracle/product/app/10R2/db/sysman/admin/supportedtzs.lst

emctl resetTZ agent

Updating /oracle/product/app/10R2/db/cot-db-001_ALEAP1/sysman/config/emd.properties…
Time zone set to +00:00.

To complete this process, you must either:

connect to the database served by this DBConsole as user ‘sysman’, and execute:

SQL> exec mgmt_target.set_agent_tzrgn('cot-db-001:1830','+00:00')

– or –

connect to the database served by this DBConsole as user ‘sys’, and execute:

SQL> alter session set current_schema = SYSMAN;
SQL> exec mgmt_target.set_agent_tzrgn('ALE-db-001:1830','+00:00')

lista o nome dos agents

emctl config listtargets
********************************
drop user sysman cascade; 
drop user MGMT_VIEW cascade; 
drop role MGMT_USER; 
drop tablespace MGMT_TABLESPACE including contents and datafiles; 
drop tablespace MGMT_ECM_DEPOT_TS including contents and datafiles; 
set termout off feedb off trimsp on lin 9999 head off echo off 
spool /tmp/dropsysmanpublicsynonym.sql 
select 'drop public synonym '||synonym_name||';' ddl from dba_synonyms where table_owner='SYSMAN'; 
spool off 
set termout on feedb on echo on 
@/tmp/dropsysmanpublicsynonym
set|export ORACLE_SID=<database_sid>
set|export ORACLE_HOME=<oracle_home>
cd to ORACLE_HOME/bin
./emca -deconfig dbcontrol db -repos drop

******************************************************************
example I:

[celcaix2]> export TZ=EET-10EETDT-11,M10.1.0/02:00,M4.1.0/03:00
[celcaix2]> echo $TZ
EET-10EETDT-11,M10.1.0/02:00,M4.1.0/03:00

[celcaix2]> emctl config agent getTZ
Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g Release 4 Grid Control 10.2.0.4.0.
Copyright (c) 1996, 2007 Oracle Corporation. All rights reserved.
GMT+10:00

example II:

[celcaix2]> export TZ=EET-10EETDT,M10.1.0/02:00,M4.1.0/03:00
[celcaix2]> echo $TZ
EET-10EETDT,M10.1.0/02:00,M4.1.0/03:00

[celcaix2]> emctl config agent getTZ
Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g Release 4 Grid Control 10.2.0.4.0.
Copyright (c) 1996, 2007 Oracle Corporation. All rights reserved.
Australia/Sydney
********************************************************************

export TZ=GMT+3
na produção quando forA do horário de verão TZ=GMT+3 e no horario de verão= TZ=GMT+2

se der erro ao executar:
ORA-20233: Invalid agent name
sun220r.spiceindia.com:3872
ORA-06512: at “SYSMAN.MGMT_TARGET”, line 3814
ORA-06512: at line 1

Faça o seguinte:

emctl stop dbconsole
emdctl validateTZ agent GMT+3
- emctl getemhome
- EXPORT emdroot=<from above>
emctl start dbconsole
Start the console. This populates values in sysman.mgmt_targets
As SYSMAN, run the SQL:
exec mgmt_target.set_agent_tzrgn('cur-db-001.dc.spc.org.br:3938','-03:00');

comando para verificar a porta.

NETSTAT -AN |GREP (nº da porta) 
netstat -an |grep 1830

——————-*************————————–**************————————
This script worked for me on Solaris 5.10 with Oracle 10.2.0.4.

Test before running on your server.

# SCRIPT NAME: set_agent_tzrgn.sh
# PURPOSE: Update the timezone for dbsoncole. FYI - database timezone should be updated first.
# USAGE . ./set_agent_tzrgn
# Configure the oracle home and ORACLE_SID before sourcing this script.
#
#set -vx
echo "Report the current timezone from the OS."
echo $TZ
echo "Check to see if the reported timezone is supported by the agent."
grep $TZ $ORACLE_HOME/sysman/admin/supportedtzs.lst
echo "Check to see the current timezone as configured for the agent."
grep TZ $ORACLE_HOME/`hostname`_$ORACLE_SID/sysman/config/emd.properties
# Just a reporting step.
emctl status agent
echo "This should display current timezone as reported by OS TZ value."
emctl config agent getTZ
echo "Take OS TZ and update emd.properties."
echo "resetTZ may send output to the screen on the next command needed in sqlplus."
emctl resetTZ agent
grep TZ $ORACLE_HOME/`hostname`_$ORACLE_SID/sysman/config/emd.properties
# Review and set the EMDROOT then validate the new timezone
emctl getemhome
export EMDROOT=$ORACLE_HOME/`hostname`_$ORACLE_SID
emdctl validateTZ agent $TZ
echo "Make sure the dbconsole is shutdown."
emctl stop dbconsole
# Just a reporting step.
emctl config agent getTZ
# These should be the same port and server as reported by the resetTZ command
hostname=`hostname`
agentport=`grep "Agent Port" $ORACLE_HOME/install/portlist.ini|grep $ORACLE_SID|awk '{print $7}'`
# Create timezone update sql script.
echo "
set echo on verify on feedback on autocommit off;
WHENEVER OSERROR EXIT SQL.SQLCODE ROLLBACK
WHENEVER SQLERROR EXIT SQL.SQLCODE ROLLBACK
prompt Updating dbconsole timezone for &1
alter session set current_schema = SYSMAN;
exec mgmt_target.set_agent_tzrgn('&2:&3','&4');
commit;
exit SQL.SQLCODE
" > /tmp/set_agent_tzrgn_""$$"".sql
echo "\nExecute set_agent_tzrgn.sql script to update the dbconsole config for sysman."
$ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus -S "/ as sysdba" @/tmp/set_agent_tzrgn_""$$"".sql $ORACLE_SID $hostname $agentport $TZ
SQLRESULT=$?
if \[ $SQLRESULT -eq 0 \] ; then
echo "\nBrowse to the URL as reported by the startup of dbconsole."
else
echo "\nFAILED: The set_agent_tzrgn task failed."
fi
rm /tmp/set_agent_tzrgn_""$$"".sql
emctl start dbconsole
echo "\nTimezone update for dbconsole is finished."
echo "\nFor further details on resetTZ and set_agent_tzrgn see:"
echo "Oracle® Enterprise Manager Advanced Configuration 10g Release 5 (10.2.0.5) E10954-02 March 2009."
set +vx
********************----------------------***********************

Here is a related script for updating the dbms scheduler timezone and database timezone. Updating these timezone values should be done before the dbconsole related timezone work.
This script worked for me on Solaris 5.10 with Oracle 10.2.0.4. Test before running on your server.

This script requires manual updates. Manually set the UTC_OFFSET and manually remove the sqlplus ” prompt” statement in front of
“exec dbms_scheduler.set_scheduler_attribute”
and in front of
“alter database set time_zone”.

The database changes are commented out to protect from accidental changes due to the manual configurtion for the UTC_OFFSET.

# SCRIPT NAME: set_dbtimezone.ksh
# PURPOSE: Update the timezone for the dbms_scheduler and database.
# FYI - dbconsole must also be updated using "emctl resetTZ agent" and set_agent_tzrgn.
# USAGE . ./set_dbtimezone.ksh
# Configure the oracle home and ORACLE_SID before sourcing this script.
#
#set -vx
echo "Report the current timezone from the OS."
echo $TZ
# Manually set the offset based on the expected TZ value.
UTC_OFFSET=+08:00
# Create timezone update sql script.
echo "
set echo on verify on feedback on autocommit off;
WHENEVER OSERROR EXIT SQL.SQLCODE ROLLBACK
WHENEVER SQLERROR EXIT SQL.SQLCODE ROLLBACK
prompt Updating database timezone for &1
select distinct tzname from v\$timezone_names where tzname like '&2' order by tzname;
select dbms_scheduler.stime from dual;
prompt exec dbms_scheduler.set_scheduler_attribute('default_timezone','&2');
select dbms_scheduler.stime from dual;
select localtimestamp from dual;
select dbtimezone, sessiontimezone from dual;
prompt alter database set time_zone = '&3';
select localtimestamp from dual;
prompt commit;
exit SQL.SQLCODE
" > /tmp/dbtimezone_""$$"".sql
echo "\nExecute dbtimezone.sql script to update the dbms scheduler timezone and database timezone."
$ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus -S "/ as sysdba" @/tmp/dbtimezone_""$$"".sql $ORACLE_SID $TZ $UTC_OFFSET
SQLRESULT=$?
if \[ $SQLRESULT -eq 0 \] ; then
echo "\nDatabase and DBMS Scheduler timezone updated to $TZ $UTC_OFFSET."
else
echo "\nFAILED: The 'dbms_scheduler.set_scheduler_attribute' and/or 'alter database set time_zone' task failed."
fi
rm /tmp/dbtimezone_""$$"".sql
echo "\nTimezone update for the database and dbms scheduler is finished."
echo "\nFor further details on set_scheduler_attribute (for 10g or 11g) see:"
echo "Oracle® Database Administrator's Guide 11g Release 1 (11.1) B28310-04 March 2008. - Configuring Oracle Scheduler."
set +vx

———————************************—————————-*********************

emca -reconfig dbcontrol –cluster –EM_NODE cur-db-001 -EM_NODE_LIST cur-db-001,cur-db-002,cur-db-003
emca -config dbcontrol db -repos create -cluster –EM_NODE cur-db-001 -EM_NODE_LIST cur-db-001,cur-db-002,cur-db-003

emca -reconfig dbcontrol –cluster –EM_NODE node5 -EM_NODE_LIST node6,node7,node8
emctl unsecure agent

1. setup env.
$ export PERL5LIB=$ORACLE_HOME/perl/lib:$PERL5LIB
2. Run targetdeploy.pl with arguments.
$ cd $ORACLE_HOME << ORACLE_HOME is /u0001/app/product/db/10.2.0/dv00ism
$ find . -name 'Copy.pm' -printcd
find . -name 'agentca' -printcd
export PERL5LIB= /oracle/product/app/10R2/db/perl/lib/site_perl/5.8.3:/oracle/product/app/10R2/db/perl/lib/5.8.3
directories...
/oracle/product/app/10R2/db/perl/bin/perl /oracle/product/app/10R2/db/bin/targetdeploy.pl -v cDur-db-001-vip -l LISTENER_CDUR-DB-001 -t LISTENER_CDUR-DB-001_cDur-db-001.dc.org.br -s +ASM1 -o /oracle/product/asm /oracle/product/app/10R2/db/cur-db-001_ALEAP1 cDur-db-001.dc.org.br ALEAP1
/oracle/product/app/10R2/db/perl/bin/perl /oracle/product/app/10R2/db/bin/targetdeploy.pl -v cDur-db-003-vip -l LISTENER_CDUR-DB-003 -t LISTENER_CDUR-DB-003_cDur-db-003.dc.org.br -s +ASM3 -o /oracle/product/asm /oracle/product/app/10R2/db/cDur-db-003_ALEAP3 cDur-db-003.dc.org.br ALEAP3
/oracle/product/app/10R2/db/perl/bin/perl /oracle/product/app/10R2/db/bin/targetdeploy.pl -v cDur-db-002-vip -l LISTENER_CUR-DB-002 -t LISTENER_CDUR-DB-002_cDur-db-002.dc.org.br -s +ASM2 -o /oracle/product/asm /oracle/product/app/10R2/db/cDur-db-002_ALEAP2 cDur-db-002.dc.org.br ALEAP2
Publicado em GRID CONTROL, TUTORIAL | Marcado com , , , , , , , , , , | Deixe um comentário

ÍNDICES BASEADOS EM FUNÇÃO (FUNCTION INDEXES)

SEGUE ALGUNS EXEMPLOS DE ÍNDICES BASEADOS EM FUNÇÃO.

create unique index product_index 
on product_id ( decode(enabled, 'Y', id , null));

CREATE INDEX idx_person_upper_given_names ON person (UPPER(given_names));
CREATE INDEX idx_person_upper_last_name ON person (UPPER(last_name));
create index my_objects_name on my_objects (lower(object_name));
CREATE INDEX tele_Remote DBA.up1_clientsv8i 
ON tele_Remote DBA.clientsv8i(UPPER(customer_name))
TABLESPACE tele_index
STORAGE (INITIAL 1M NEXT 1M PCTINCREASE 0);

CREATE INDEX tele_Remote DBA.dec_clientsv8i 
ON tele_Remote DBA.clientsv8i(DECODE(user_code,1,'MANAGER',2,'CLERK',3,'GENERAL USER'))
TABLESPACE tele_index
STORAGE (INITIAL 1M NEXT 1M PCTINCREASE 0);
CREATE UNIQUE INDEX idx_uniq_metadata2
 ON metadata( (case when obj_type = 1 
 then fk_id 
 else null 
 end) );

SELECT /*+INDEX(PERSON IDX_PERSON_UPPER_SURNAME)*/ * 
FROM person 
WHERE UPPER(surname) LIKE 'P%';
Publicado em INDEX TUNING, TUTORIAL | Marcado com , , , , , , , , , , , | Deixe um comentário

VÁRIOS SCRIPTS EM SHELL E DICAS DE COMANDOS DE LINUX

CONTAR O NUMERO DE PROCESSOS

ps aux |wc -l

CONTAR NUMERO DE PROCESSOS

ps -ef |wc -l

Apaga todos os aquivos di dia 30 de Maio

 for i in `ls -ltr |grep 'May 30'|awk '{print $9}'`
 do
 rm -fr $i
 echo $i
 done
 ----move todos os arquivo do dia 23 de outubro para a pasta old
for i in `ls -ltr |grep 'Oct 23'|awk '{print $9}'`
 do
 mv $i to old/
 echo $i
 done
 ---- apaga todos os aquivos do mes de junho
for i in `ls -ltr |grep 'Jun '|awk '{print $9}'`
 do
 rm -fr $i
 echo $i
 done

 Mostra todos os arquivos maiores que 1000000
 ------------------------------------------
for i in `du -k |awk '{print $1}'`
 do
 if [ "$i" -gt 1000000 ]
 then
 echo $i
 fi
 done

——————————————

> ls -ltr |grep 'Jul 16'|awk '{print $9}'
-------------------------------------------------------------------
 deleta por DIA
-------------------------------------------------------------------
for linha in `ls -ltr |grep 'Sep 25' |awk '{print $9}'`
 do
 rm $linha
 echo 'DELETEI O ARQUIVO ' $linha
 done
-------------------------------------------------------------------
 deleta por MES
-------------------------------------------------------------------
for linha in `ls -ltr |grep 'Aug' |awk '{print $9}'`
 do
 rm $linha
 echo $linha
 done
for linha in `ls -ltr |grep 'Aug 14' |awk '{print $9}'`
 do
 rm $linha
 echo $linha
 done
du -k |awk '{print $1}'| sort -u
du -k |awk '{print $1}'| sort -A
-------------------------------------------------------------------

/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*

AWK COM IF MUDANDO COR DA TELA *-*-*-/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*

 awk '
 { if ($6 >=550 && $6 <2000){system("tput bel ~/");system("tput blink ~/");system("tput setaf 1 ~/");system("tput bold ~/"); print "| INSTANCIA 1 = > " $6 , " INSTANCIA 2 = > " $11, " INSTANCIA 3 = > " $16," |";}
 else if ($11>=550 && $11<2000){system("tput bel ~/");system("tput blink ~/");system("tput setaf 1 ~/");system("tput bold ~/"); print "| INSTANCIA 1 = > " $6 , " INSTANCIA 2 = > " $11, " INSTANCIA 3 = > " $16," |";}
 else if ($16>=550 && $16<2000){system("tput bel ~/");system("tput blink ~/");system("tput setaf 1 ~/");system("tput bold ~/"); print "| INSTANCIA 1 = > " $6 , " INSTANCIA 2 = > " $11, " INSTANCIA 3 = > " $16," |";}
 else if ($6 <550 && $6>=400) {system("tput sgr0 ~/");system("tput setaf 3 ~/");system("tput bold ~/"); print "| INSTANCIA 1 = > " $6 , " INSTANCIA 2 = > " $11, " INSTANCIA 3 = > " $16," |";}
 else if ($11<550 && $11>=400){system("tput sgr0 ~/");system("tput setaf 3 ~/");system("tput bold ~/"); print "| INSTANCIA 1 = > " $6 , " INSTANCIA 2 = > " $11, " INSTANCIA 3 = > " $16," |";}
 else if ($16<550 && $16>=400){system("tput sgr0 ~/");system("tput setaf 3 ~/");system("tput bold ~/"); print "| INSTANCIA 1 = > " $6 , " INSTANCIA 2 = > " $11, " INSTANCIA 3 = > " $16," |";}
 else if ($6 >=0 && $6 <=400){system("tput sgr0 ~/");system("tput setaf 2 ~/");system("tput bold ~/"); print "| INSTANCIA 1 = > " $6 , " INSTANCIA 2 = > " $11, " INSTANCIA 3 = > " $16," |";}
 else if ($11>=0 && $11<=400){system("tput sgr0 ~/");system("tput setaf 2 ~/");system("tput bold ~/"); print "| INSTANCIA 1 = > " $6 , " INSTANCIA 2 = > " $11, " INSTANCIA 3 = > " $16," |";}
 else if ($16>=0 && $16<=400){system("tput sgr0 ~/");system("tput setaf 2 ~/");system("tput bold ~/"); print "| INSTANCIA 1 = > " $6 , " INSTANCIA 2 = > " $11, " INSTANCIA 3 = > " $16," |";}
 else if ($2 == "-----------------------------------------------------------------" ) {system("tput sgr0 ~/");system("tput setaf 2 ~/"); print $0;}
 else if ($10 >=450 && $10 <1000) {system("tput bel ~/");system("tput blink ~/"); system("tput setaf 1 ~/");system("tput bold ~/"); print $0;}
 else if ($10 >=300 && $10 <450) {system("tput sgr0 ~/");system("tput setaf 3 ~/");system("tput bold ~/"); print $0;}
 else if ($6 == "|" ) {system("tput sgr0 ~/");system("tput setaf 2 ~/");system("tput bold ~/"); print $0;}
 else if ($6 == "L" ) {system("tput sgr0 ~/");system("tput setaf 7 ~/");system("tput bold ~/"); print $0;}
 else if ($6 == "INST" ) {system("tput sgr0 ~/");system("tput setaf 7 ~/");system("tput bold ~/"); print $0;}
 else if ($6 == "ORACLE" ) {system("tput sgr0 ~/");system("tput setaf 2 ~/");system("tput bold ~/"); print $0;}
 else null;
 }' /u01/app/operacao/scr/novoconexoes_tst.txt

*-*-*-/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/

NAWK COM IF

*-*-*-/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*

 while read i
 do
 pctot=`echo $i | nawk '{printf ("%d\n", $7 * 10)}'`
 if (($pctot == 0));then
 tput setaf 2
 echo "$i"
 elif (($pctot < 50)); then
 tput setaf 3
 echo "$i"
 else
 tput setaf 1
 echo "$i"
 fi
 done < srs_ale.txt
para mudar de cor
 tput setaf 1
para tocar beep
 tput bel
para começar a piscar
 tput blink
para parar de piscar
 tput sgr0
echo "`tput blink` `tput setaf 1 `hightlighted`tput sgr0`"
 system("tput bold ~/");
----------------------------------------------

####numero das linhas
 cat -n alert_ALEXDB1.log|grep "ORA-"

Mostra texto de linas entre 2 numeros de linha

sed -n 191391,191399p alert_ALEXDB1.log

Acha e mostra todos as linhas com o texto “ORA-“

 grep -c "ORA-" /DADOS/FULL/log/logbkp.${DATABKP}.log

Acha e mostra as linhas com o texto “ORA-” das 500 ultimas linhas

tail -500 /oracle/product/app/admin/ALEXDB/bdump/alert_ALEXDB1.log |grep -c "ORA-"
cat -n|tail -50 /oracle/product/app/admin/ALEXDB/bdump/alert_ALEXDB1.log |grep "ORA-"
cat -n /oracle/product/app/admin/ALEXDB/bdump/alert_ALEXDB1.log |grep "ORA-"| tail -50
awk '$5>=95 && $5<101 {system("tput setaf 1 ~/"); print $0;}
 $5<95 && $5>31 {system("tput setaf 3 ~/"); print $0;}
 $5>0 && $5<=30 {system("tput setaf 2 ~/"); print $0;}
 $7 *10 >=300 && $7 *10 <1100 {system("tput setaf 1 ~/"); print $0;}
 $7 *10 >=0 && $7 *10 <= 9 {system("tput setaf 2 ~/"); print $0;}
 $7 *10 >=10 && $7 *10 <=299 {system("tput setaf 3 ~/"); print $0;}' srs_mon.txt
for i in `cat -n /oracle/product/app/admin/ALEXDB/bdump/alert_ALEXDB1.log |grep "ORA-"| tail -5|awk '{print $1}'`
 do
 if [ $i -eq 0 ];
 then
 echo "NÃO TEM ERROS";
 else
 #echo $i "eq nao zero ";
 sed -n $i,$(i +2)\p /oracle/product/app/admin/ALEXDB/bdump/alert_ALEXDB1.log >> /DADOS/FULL/log/errosALEXDB1.log
 mailx -s "ERROS NO ALERT DA PRODUÇÂO ALEXDB1" dba@pires.com.br < //DADOS/FULL/log/errosALEXDB1.log
 fi;
 done

*-*-*-/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*

for i in `cat -n /oracle/product/app/admin/ALEXDB/bdump/alert_ALEXDB1.log |grep "ORA-"| tail -2500|awk '{print $1}'`
 do
 if [ $i -eq 0 ];
 then
 echo "NÃO TEM ERROS";
 else
 #echo $i "eq nao zero ";
 sed -n $i,$(($i +2))\p /oracle/product/app/admin/ALEXDB/bdump/alert_ALEXDB1.log >> /DADOS/FULL/log/errosALEXDB1.log
 fi;
 done
 if [ -f $filename ];
 then
 mailx -s "ERROS NO ALERT DA PRODUÇÂO ALEXDB1" dba@pires.com.br < /DADOS/FULL/log/errosALEXDB1.log
 rm /DADOS/FULL/log/errosALEXDB1.log
 fi;

*-*-*-/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*

awk cat -n /oracle/product/app/admin/ALEXDB/bdump/alert_ALEXDB1.log |grep "ORA-"| tail -50

 sed -n 192369,(192369+3)P alert_ALEXDB1.log

/oracle/product/app/admin/ALEXDB/bdump/alert_ALEXDB1.log

cat -n /oracle/product/app/admin/ALEXDB/bdump/alert_ALEXDB1.log |grep "ORA-"| tail -50

Programa para enviar -email quando achar erros nos alert do banco

tail -500 /oracle/product/app/admin/ALEXDB/bdump/alert_ALEXDB1.log |grep -c "ORA-"

 if [ $? -eq 0 ] ## ERRO NO ALERT
 then
 ##echo "ACHOU ERRO NO ALERT"
 grep "ORA-" /oracle/product/app/admin/ALEXDB/bdump/alert_ALEXDB1.log >> /DADOS/FULL/log/ERROBKP.${DATABKP}.log
 mailx -s "ERROS NO ALERT DA PRODUÇÂO ALEXDB1" dba@pires.com.br < /DADOS/FULL/log/ERROBKP.${DATABKP}.log
 mailx -s "Fim Backup FULL Oracle COM ERRO - Producao - IBM" dba@pires.com.br < /DADOS/FULL/log/logbkp.${DATABKP}.log
 else
 ##echo "BACKUP FEITO COM SUCESSO"
 mailx -s "Fim Backup FULL Oracle com sucesso - Producao" dba@pires.com.br,operacao@pires.com.br,sysadm@pires.com.br < /DADOS/FULL/log/logbkp.${DATABKP}.log
 fi

/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*
COPIA ARCHIVES
/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*

 #!/usr/bin/bash
 ls /ARCHIVE/*.arc | awk -F"/" '{print $3}' > /tmp/local1.tmp
 ssh oracle@apolo "ls /backup/arch/SPCAP/*.arc" | awk -F"/" '{print $5}' > /tmp/local2.tmp
 diff /tmp/local1.tmp /tmp/local2.tmp | grep "<" | awk '{print "scp -c blowfish -C /ARCHIVE/" $2 " oracle@apolo:/backup/arch/SPCAP/."
 }' | bash

/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*
Comando pra saber se uma maquina linux é vmware ou virtual
/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*

lspci

/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*
COMANDOS DE DISCO UTIL COM ASM
/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*
verifica discos

lsdev -Ccdisk

Verificar conteudo do disco

lspv | grep hdisk7
lquerypv -h /dev/rhdiskpower33

discos com problema
25 CANDIDATE NORMAL /dev/rhdiskpower33
27 CANDIDATE NORMAL /dev/rhdiskpower35

chdev -l /dev/rhdiskpower33 -a reserve_lock=no
chdev -l /dev/rhdiskpower35 -a reserve_lock=no
chdev -l hdiskpower35 -a reserve_lock=no
hdiskpower35 changed

/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*

MUDANDO NOME DO HOST NO LINUX

/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*

Tenta mudar no arquivo /etc/hosts
x.x.x.x meu.dominio.com.br hostname
e muda tb la no /etc/sysconfig/network
HOSTNAME: nome

/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*

COMANDO DE MOUNT DE NFS
/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*

mount -o fastattr,hard,rw,noac,proto=udp,bg,intr,retrans=10,timeo=1000,vers=3 10.198.35.11:/backup /DADOS

/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*

COMANDO DE CRIAÇÃO DE LINK SIMBÓLICO

/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*

create a symbolic link "ln -s /usr/lib/libgdbm.so.2.0.0 /usr/lib/libdb.so.2"
ln -s /usr/lib64/libdb1.so.2 /usr/lib/libdb.so.2
ln -s /usr/lib64/libgdbm.so.2.0.0 /usr/lib64/libdb.so.2

/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*/*

Solution
Enhancement Request ( Unpublished Bug 8303425 ) has this issue discussed.

1] If creating new ASMLib Devices, give label name with no more than 24 characters.

2] When you see ORA-15040, ORA-15042, then you can do the followings:

shutdown ASM instances on All the nodes

take 50 MB ‘dd’ backup of All the disks in the affected diskgroup

dd if=/dev/emcpoweral1 of=/tmp/al1.50m.dd bs=1024 count=51200

==============================================================:

IMPORTANT: This is a must safety measure, in case anything happens in the next step, we can go back to the original state. Also it is recommended that you open an SR with Oracle GCS.

use force-renamedisk commad to change ” driver.provstr ” value and provide a label length <= 24. This needs to be done for all the affected disks.

/etc/init.d/oracleasm force-renamedisk /dev/emcpoweral1 P300R10RG2D13

Run the scandisks command on All the nodes

/etc/init.d/oracleasm scandisks
 Check the disks are visible on All the nodes, with new labels
Publicado em SHELL SCRIPT, TUTORIAL | Marcado com , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Deixe um comentário

Exemplos de tabelas organizadas por índice

Abaixo estão alguns exemplos de como criar tabelas organizadas por indice

 
CREATE TABLE my_iot (id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY, value VARCHAR2(50)) ORGANIZATION INDEX;
CREATE TABLE my_iot (id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY, value VARCHAR2(50)) ORGANIZATION INDEX;
 CREATE TABLE ALT_DOC (TIP_DOCUMENT CHAR(1),NUM_DOCUMENTO number(9) PRIMARY KEY) ORGANIZATION INDEX;

CREATE TABLE ALT_DOC (
TIP_DOCUMENTO CHAR(1),
NUM_DOCUMENTO number(9), 
CONsTRAINT PK_ALT_DOC PRIMARY KEY (TIP_DOCUMENTO,NUM_DOCUMENTO)) 
ORGANIZATION INDEX
TABLESPACE TBS_SPC_DT_01;
CREATE TABLE labor_hour (
WORK_DATE DATE,
EMPLOYEE_NO VARCHAR2(8),
SUMMIT_WORK_ORDER_NO VARCHAR2(7),
DASH VARCHAR2(2),
CLASS_CODE VARCHAR2(6),
PAYCODE VARCHAR2(2),
ASSIGNED_CREW_NUMBER VARCHAR2(5),
TRANSFER_CREW_NUMBER VARCHAR2(5),
REFERENCE_TYPE VARCHAR2(1),
REFERENCE_NUMBER VARCHAR2(10),
OVERTIME_CODE VARCHAR2(1),
SHIFT_DIFFERENTIAL VARCHAR2(1) NOT NULL,
HOURS NUMBER(4,2) NOT NULL,
MOD_USER_ID VARCHAR2(30) DEFAULT USER,
MOD_USER_DATE DATE DEFAULT SYSDATE,
CONSTRAINT pk_labor_hour 
PRIMARY KEY (work_date, employee_no, summit_work_order_no, dash, class_code, paycode, assigned_crew_number, transfer_crew_number, reference_type, reference_number, overtime_code, shift_differential))
ORGANIZATION INDEX
INCLUDING hours
OVERFLOW TABLESPACE uwdata;
Publicado em INDEX TUNING, PLSQL SCRIPTS | Marcado com , , , , , , , , , | Deixe um comentário

O que fazer se a instalação do 11gr2 Grid Infraestructure falhar?

O que fazer se a instalação do 11gr2 Grid Infraestructure falhar??

Basicamente são 2 passos:

Passo 1: Como root, rode esse comando em todos os nós do cluster exceto no primeiro nó.

$GRID_HOME/crs/install/rootcrs.pl -verbose -deconfig -force

Passo 2: Como root, rode  no ultimo que sobrou ou seja, no primeiro nó do cluster:

 $GRID_HOME/crs/install/rootcrs.pl -verbose -deconfig -force -lastnode

Esse comando irá zerar os discos de OCR e os discos de Voting.

Pronto, agora é só rodar o root.sh novamente

$GRID_HOME/root.sh
Publicado em PLSQL SCRIPTS, RAC, SHELL SCRIPT, TUTORIAL | Marcado com , , , , , , , , , , | Deixe um comentário

Como tablespaces podem ser transportadas a partir de qualquer plataforma para qualquer plataforma de 10g

Este boletim explica como tablespaces podem ser transportadas a partir de qualquer plataforma para qualquer plataforma de 10g, desde que as plataformas estejam na lista abaixo:

   SQL>  select * from v$transportable_platform;
   PLATFORM_ID PLATFORM_NAME                            ENDIAN_FORMAT
   ---------- ---------------------------------------- --------------
             1 Solaris[tm] OE (32-bit)                  Big
             2 Solaris[tm] OE (64-bit)                  Big
             7 Microsoft Windows IA (32-bit)            Little
            10 Linux IA (32-bit)                        Little
             6 AIX-Based Systems (64-bit)               Big
             3 HP-UX (64-bit)                           Big
             5 HP Tru64 UNIX                            Little
             4 HP-UX IA (64-bit)                        Big
            11 Linux IA (64-bit)                        Little
            15 HP Open VMS                              Little
             8 Microsoft Windows IA (64-bit)            Little
             9 IBM zSeries Based Linux                  Big
            13 Linux x86 64-bit                         Little
            16 Apple Mac OS                             Big
            12 Microsoft Windows x86 64-bit             Little
            17 Solaris Operating System (x86)           Little
            18 IBM Power Based Linux                    Big
            20 Solaris Operating System (x86-64)        Little
            19 HP IA Open VMS                           Little

1. Verifique se há restrições

————————————-

Reveja as “Limitações no Uso Transportable Tablespace” seção na Nota 371556,1. Entre outras coisas, objetos que residem no tablespace SYSTEM e objetos pertencentes a SYS não serão transportados.

Isto inclui, mas não está limitado à usuários, privilégios, Stored Procedures PL/SQL e views.

Se você usar SPATIAL INDEX, aplicar a solução na Nota 579136,1 “IMPDP TRANSPORTABLE TABLESPACE  FAILS for SPATIAL INDEX” antes de continuar

Verifique se os tablespaces serão auto-suficientes

execute sys.dbms_tts.transport_set_check('TBS_DADOS,TBS_INDICE,USERS,TOOLS', true);
select * from sys.transport_set_violations;

==> Essas violações devem ser resolvidas antes de trasportar os tablespaces.

Coloque as tablespaces em modo READ ONLY

ALTER TABLESPACE TOOLS READ ONLY;
ALTER TABLESPACE USERS READ ONLY;
ALTER TABLESPACE TBS_DADOS  READ ONLY;
ALTER TABLESPACE TBS_INDICE READ ONLY;

3. Exporte os metadados

exp userid=\'/ as sysdba\' transport_tablespace=y tablespaces=TBS_DADOS,TBS_INDICE,USERS,TOOLS file=spc_tts.dmp log=exp_spc_tts.log statistics=none

Note: Os dados da tabela não serão exportados

      Sobre o export dos metadados usando transportable tablespace...
      For tablespace REPOSIT ...
      . exporting cluster definitions
      . exporting table definitions
      . . exporting table                MTG_COL_DEP_CHG
      . . exporting table                MTG_DATABASES 
      ....
      . . exporting table              ALEX11_SYSUSERS
      . exporting referential integrity constraints
      . exporting triggers
      . end transportable tablespace metadata export
      Export terminated successfully without warnings.

4. Verifique a ordenação (endianness) do banco de dados de destino e converta, se necessário

–> Execute localmente a conversão do endian compatível antes da etapa de importação:

     rman target=/

    Recovery Manager: Release 10.1.0.1.0 - 64bit Beta
    connected to target database: V101B2 (DBID=3287908659)
    RMAN> convert tablespace 'TBS_DADOS,TBS_INDICE,USERS,TOOLS'
    2>  to platform='Linux x86 64-bit'
    3> FORMAT='/DADOS/FULL/transport_linux/%U';

5. Mova os datafiles e o arquivo do dump de exportação

———————————–

          $ftp tts.dmp
               + 
                /database/db101b2/V101B2/datafile/reposit01.dbf (no conversion)
               or
                /tmp/reposit01.dbf (converted file if conversion had been required)

6. Importe os metadados

—————

          $ imp userid=\'/ as sysdba\' TRANSPORT_TABLESPACE=Y  file=spc_tts.dmp log=spc_imp_tts.log  TABLESPACES= TBS_DADOS,TBS_INDICE,USERS,TOOLS datafiles=DADOS/FULL/transport_linux/bla1.dbf,DADOS/FULL/transport_linux/bla2.dbf,DADOS/FULL/transport_linux/bla3.dbf, (or /tmp/reposit01.dbf )

7. Altere as tablespaces importadas para READ WRITE

————————————————

 ALTER TABLESPACE TOOLS READ WRITE;
ALTER TABLESPACE USERS READ ONLY;
ALTER TABLESPACE TBS_DADOS  READ WRITE;
ALTER TABLESPACE TBS_INDICE  READ WRITE;
PRONTO!

Preservando estatísticas ao transportar Tablespaces no Oracle

Este é um roteiro para transportar um tablespace sem ter que analisar novamente tabelas e índices. Isto naturalmente supõe que as estatísticas otimizadoras já tenham sido coletadas. O exemplo usa um schema chamado DEMO e um tablespace chamado TRANSTS.

1. Preserve as estatísticas:

exec DBMS_STATS.CREATE_STAT_TABLE ('DEMO','DEMOSTATS');
exec DBMS_STATS.EXPORT_SCHEMA_STATS ('DEMO','DEMOSTATS');

2. Transforme o tablespace em READ ONLY, como preparação para o transporte:

ALTER TABLESPACE transts READ ONLY;

3. Verifique se não há nenhuma dependência que venha a violar as restrições de transporte:

exec dbms_tts.transport_set_check(‘TRANSTS’, TRUE);

SELECT * FROM transport_set_violations;

4. Exporte as definições de dicionário do tablespace:

 exp TRANSPORT_TABLESPACE=y TABLESPACES=transts \ TRIGGERS=y  CONSTRAINTS=y GRANTS=y FILE=tts.dmp LOG=exptts.log

5. Faça um upload para um FTP ou copie os arquivos de dados e exporte o arquivo da origem para o destino;

6. Crie usuários no banco de dados alvo, caso eles ainda não tenham sido criados;

7. Ligue os tablespaces ao banco de dados alvo:

     imp TRANSPORT_TABLESPACE=y \
     DATAFILES=('/opt/oracle/data/TRANSTS_1.dbf') \
     TABLESPACES=(transts) \
     FILE=tts.dmp LOG=imptts.log

8. Marque o tablespace como READ WRITE. Dessa forma, RMAN reconhecerá sua existência. Caso seja necessário, é possível reverter o ajuste do tablespace para READ ONLY:

 ALTER TABLESPACE transts READ WRITE;

9. Importe as estatísticas preservadas:

exec DBMS_STATS.IMPORT_SCHEMA_STATS (‘DEMO’,’DEMOSTATS’);

Publicado em PLSQL SCRIPTS, SHELL SCRIPT, TUTORIAL | Marcado com , , , , , , , , , , , , | Deixe um comentário

RAC 11G R2 Grid Infraestructure em português instalação passo passo

Olá amigos.

Esse documento é uma tradução que eu fiz para o português de um dos melhores guias de instalação do Oracle RAC 11g R2 Grid Infraestructure para AIX que eu conheço,  infelizmente não consta o nome do autor no pdf original, porém ele é totalmente baseado na documentação oficial Oracle.

Boa Leitura para todos.

1.  Introdução

1.1.  Visão geral dos novos conceitos do 11gR2 Grid Infrastructure

1.1.1. SCAN.

1.1.2. GNS1

1.1.3. OCR e Voting Disk usando armazenamento ASM

1.1.4. Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI)

1.1.5. Tempo

1.1.6. Clusterware ecompartilhamento do mesmo Oracle Home por ASM

1.2. Requerimento do Sistema

1.2.1. Requerimento de Hardware

1.2.2. Requerimentos de Hardware de rede

1.2.3. Requetimento para Endereçamento IP

1.2.4. Método de Instalação

2.  Preparação dos nós de cluster para OracleRAC

2.1. Contas de Usuário

2.1.1. Criação de Usuarios

2.1.2. Verificando usuários criados

2.1.3. Verifique e Concedendo privilégios

2.1.4. Configuração de equivalencia de usuário via SSH

2.1.5. Configurand0 o perfil do usuário GRID

2.2. Configuração de SO

2.2.1. Verificando AIO

2.2.2. Veficando parâmetro VMM

2.2.3. Modificação para ajuste restrito do strict_maxperm

2.2.4. Alterando o NTP

2.3. Rodando o rootpre.sh

2.4. Preparando a Rede

2.5. Preparando o Cliente

3. Preparando  o storage compartilhado para Oracle RAC

4. Instalando o Oracle Grid Infraestruture

4.1. Instalanção basica do Oracle Grid Infraestruture (sem GNS e IPMI)

4.2. Detalhando o resultado do script “Root.sh”

5. Definindo o caminho do Grid Infrastructure Home

6. Instalação do programa RDBMS

7. Definindo o caminho do RDBMS Home

8. Executando o ASMCA para criar os diskgroups

9. Executando o DBCA paracriar o database.

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1. Introdução

NOTA: A idéia desse artigo sobre RAC 11gR2 não é substituir ou deprezar a documentação Oracle, mas sim, é servir de complemento e auxiliar aqueles que tem dificuldade com o Inglês. Para fornecer respostas a quaisquer perguntas que não puderem ser claramente abordadas por esse artigo, use a documentação Oficial Oracle.

1.1. Visão geral dos novos conceitos do 11gR2 Grid Infrastructure

 

1.1.1. SCAN

O cliente de nome único de acesso (SCAN) “Single Client Access Name” é o endereço usado por todos os clientes conectados ao cluster. O nome SCAN é um nome de domínio registrado em três endereços IP, quer no domain name service (DNS) ou no Grid Naming Service (GNS). O nome SCAN elimina a necessidade de alterar os clientes quando nós são adicionados ou removidos do cluster. Os clientes que usam nomes SCAN também pode acessar o cluster usando EZCONNECT.

O cliente de nome único de acess (SCAN) é um nome de domínio que resolve todos os endereços alocados para o nome SCAN. Defina três endereços para o SCAN. Durante a instalação do Oracle grid infrastructure listeners são criados para cada um dos endereços SCAN, o Oracle grid infrastructure controla qual servidor responde a uma solicitação de endereço SCAN. Forneça três endereços IP no DNS para serem usados no mapeamento de nome SCAN. Isto assegura a alta disponibilidade.

•Os endereços SCAN precisam estar na mesma sub-rede que os endereços VIP dos nós de cluster.

•O nome de domínio SCAN deve ser único dentro de sua rede corporativa.

1.1.2. GNS

No passado, os nomes de host e endereços VIP eram definidos no DNS ou localmente no arquivo hosts. GNS pode simplificar esta configuração usando DHCP. Para usar GNS, o DHCP deve ser configurado no subdomínio em que o cluster reside.

1.1.3. OCR e Voting Disk usando ASM

A habilidade de usar diskgroups ASM para o armazenamento de Clusterware OCR e discos de votação é um novo recurso no o Oracle Database 11g Release 2 Grid Infrastructure. Se você escolher esta opção e ASM ainda não estiver configurado, o OUI iniciará o assistente de configuração do AM  para configurar o ASM e o diskgroup.

1.1.4. Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI)

Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) fornece um conjunto de interfaces comuns de hardware e firmware para que os  administradores gerenciarem e monitorarem o funcionamento do sistema.

Com o Oracle Database 11g Release 2, o Oracle Clusterware pode integrar IPMI para fornecer suporte ao isolamento de falha e garantir a integridade do cluster. Você deve ter o seguinte hardware e software configurado para permitir que os nós do cluster sejam gerenciados com IPMI:

Cada nó membro do cluster requer uma Baseboard Management Controller (BMC) rodando firmware compatível com IPMI versão 1.5  que suporta IPMI sobre LANs  e aceita configuração para controle remoto.

Cada nó membro do cluster requer um driver IPMI instalado. O cluster requer uma rede de gestão para IPMI. Esta pode ser uma rede compartilhada, mas a Oracle recomenda que você configure uma rede dedicada.

Cada porta ethernet de cada nó do cluster usada pelo BMC deve ser conectada à rede de gerenciamento IPMI.

Se você pretende usar IPMI, então você deve fornecer um nome de usuário e senha para administração quando solicitado durante a instalação.

1.1.5. A sincronização da hora

Oracle Clusterware 11g Release 2 (11.2) requer a sincronização de tempo em todos os nós dentro de um cluster quando o Oracle RAC é instalado. Para conseguir isso, você deve ter o network time protocol (NTP) configurado no seu SO. O novo Serviço Oracle Cluster Time Synchronization foi projetado para organizações cujos database Oracle RAC são incapazes de acessar os serviços NTP.

1.1.6. Clusterware e ASM compartilham o mesmo Oracle Home

O Clusterware e ASM compartilham o mesmo Oracle Home mesmo assim, nós chamamos isso de Grid Infrastructure home (antes do 11gR2 o ASM podia e ser instalado em um home separado ou no mesmo Oracle home do RDBMS).

1.2. Requisitos de Sistema

 

1.2.1. Requisitos de hardware

· Memória física (pelo menos 1,5 gigabyte (GB) de RAM)

· Uma quantidade de area de swap igual à quantidade de memória RAM

· Área temporária (pelo menos 1 GB) disponível no / tmp

·O tipo de Processador (CPU) que seja certificada com a versão do software Oracle que está sendo instalado

.Resolução de tela mínima de 1024 x 786, de modo que o Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) seja exibido corretamente

·Todos os processadores dos servidores que serão utilizados no cluster devem ter a mesma arquitetura.

Exemplo:  processadores de 32 bit ou processadores de 64-bit

·Espaço em disco nos locais de instalação do software.

Você vai precisar de pelo menos 4,5 GB de espaço disponível em disco para o diretório Grid home, que inclui tanto os arquivos binários do Oracle Clusterware quanto os do Oracle Automatic  Storage Management (Oracle ASM) , todos seus arquivos de log associados e pelo menos 4 GB de espaço disponível em disco para o diretório home do Oracle Database.

· Espaço de disco compartilhado

Um banco de dados Oracle RAC é um tipo de banco de dados compartilhado. Todos os arquivos de dados, arquivos de controle, arquivos de redo log e o arquivo de parâmetro do servidor (SPFILE) utilizados pelo banco de dados Oracle RAC devem estar em um storage compartilhado que seja acessível por todas as instâncias de banco de dados Oracle RAC.  A instalação do Oracle RAC que é descrito nesse artigo, usa o Oracle ASM para o armazenamento compartilhado do Oracle Clusterware e dos arquivos de banco de dados Oracle. A quantidadedo espaço de disco partilhado é determinada pelo tamanho do seu banco de dados.

1.2.2. Requisitos de hardware de rede

· Cada nódeve ter pelo menos duas placas de rede (NIC) ou adaptadores de rede.

Nomes de interface pública devem ser os mesmos para todos os nós. Se a interface pública em um nó usa o adaptadore de rede “PublicLan”, então você deve configurar “PublicLan” como a interface pública em todos os nós.

1.1.4. Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) 2

Você deve configurar os mesmos nomes de interfaces privadas para todos os nós. Se ‘PrivateLAN’ é o nome da interface privada para o primeiro nó, então ‘PrivateLAN “deve ser o nome da interface privada para o segundo nó.

•Para a rede privada, os pontos finais de todas as interfaces de interconexão designadas devem ser totalmente acessíveis na rede. Cada nó no cluster deve ser capaz de se conectar a todas as interfaces de rede privada no cluster.

•O nome do host de cada nó deve estar em conformidade com o padrão RFC 952, que permite caracteres alfanuméricos. Nomes de host usando sublinhados (“_”) não são permitidos.

1.2.3.Requisitos de Endereço IP

•Um endereço de IP público para cada nó

•Um endereço IP virtual para cada nó

•Três endereços para single client access name (SCAN) do cluster

1.2.4. Método de instalação

Este documento detalha os passos para a instalação de um Oracle 11gR2 RAC cluster de 2 nós com AIX:

•Os binários do Oracle Grid Infrastructure Home são instalados no disco local de cada um dos nós do RAC.

•Os arquivos requeridos pelo Oracle Clusterware (OCR e discos de voting) são armazenados em ASM

•A instalação é explicada sem GNS e IPMI.

2. Prepare os nós do cluster para Oracle RAC

2.1. Contas de Usuário

Nós recomendamos  usuários diferentes para a instalação do Grid Infrastructure (GI) e do RDBMS Oracle Home.

O Grid Infrastructure será instalado em um Oracle base separado, de propriedade do usuário grid. Após instalar o grid  o GI home será de propriedade da root, e inacessível para usuários não autorizados.

2.1.1. Criação de usuários

#mkgroup -'A' id='1000' adms='root' oinstall
#mkgroup -'A' id='1100' adms='root' asmadmin
#mkgroup -'A' id='1200' adms='root' dba
#mkgroup -'A' id='1300' adms='root' asmdba
#mkgroup -'A' id='1301' adms='root' asmoper
#mkuser id='1100' pgrp='oinstall' groups='asmadmin,asmdba,asmoper' home='/home/grid' grid
#mkuser id='1101' pgrp='oinstall' groups='dba,asmdba' home='/home/oracle' oracle
#mkdir -p /haclu/app/11.2.0/grid
#chown -R grid:oinstall /haclu
#mkdir -p /haclu/app/oracle
#chown oracle:oinstall /haclu/app/oracle
#chmod -R 775 /haclu

1.2.2. Requisitos de hardware de rede

2.1.2. Verifique os usuários criados

# id oracle uid=1101(oracle) gid=1000(oinstall) groups=1001(dba),1300(asmdba)

# id grid uid=1100(grid) gid=1000(oinstall) groups=1100(asmadmin),1301(asmoper),1300(asmdba)

2.1.3. Verifique e conceder privilégios

#lsuser -a capabilities grid grid
#chuser capabilities=CAP_NUMA_ATTACH,CAP_BYPASS_RAC_VMM,CAP_PROPAGATE grid
#lsuser -a capabilities grid grid
capabilities=CAP_NUMA_ATTACH,CAP_BYPASS_RAC_VMM,CAP_PROPAGATE

 

2.1.4. Instalação de equivalência de usuário SSH

Recomendamos a criação de ssh ao configurar as contas de usuário (mas também é possível configurar ssh através do Oracle Universal Installer (OUI)):

passwd grid 
passwd oracle

Use usuário grid em todos os nós

rm -rf $HOME/.ssh

No nó1:

$GI_OUI/sshsetup/sshUserSetup.sh -user grid -hosts "node1 node2" -advanced -noPromptPassphrase

Use o usuário Oracle:

$OUI_HOME/sshsetup/sshUserSetup.sh-user oracle-hosts "node1 node2" avançada -NoPromptPassphrase

Por favor, teste se ssh é bem-sucedido para e em ambos os nós sem pedir senha.

2.1.5. Configure o perfil do usuário GRID

# su - grid $ echo $SHELL /usr/bin/ksh $ vi .profile umask 022

Se as variáveis de ambiente ORACLE_SID, ORACLE_HOME, ou ORACLE_BASE estivrem definidas no arquivo, remova essas linhas do arquivo.

export GI_OUI=/stage/core/AIX/PPC-64/64bit/rdbms/11.2.0.1.0/grid/
cd $GI_OUI

2.2.Configuração do S.O.

 

NOTA: Este artigo apenas lista as ações e melhores práticas relacionadas a exemplos básico nesse ambiente.

Mais patches do sistema operacional e pacotes podem ser necessários quando se utiliza outras tecnologias, como VIO, DLPA, etc. Por favor, veja a  Nota :282.036,1: “Minimum Software Versions and Patches Required to Support Oracle Products on IBM Power Systems”  para obter informações mais detalhadas do software do sistema operacional e dos requisitos do kernel.

2.2.1. Verificando AIO

# ioo ¨Co aio_maxreqs aio_maxreqs = 65536

Para AIX 5.3:

# lsattr -El aio0 -a maxreqs

2.2.2. Verificação do parâmetro VMM

Verificação:

 #vmo -L minperm% #vmo -L maxperm% #vmo -L maxclient% #vmo -L lru_file_repage #vmo -L
strict_maxclient #vmo -L strict_maxperm
Mudança: 
#vmo -p -o minperm%=3 #vmo -p -o maxperm%=90 #vmo -p -o maxclient%=90 #vmo -p -o
lru_file_repage=0 #vmo -p -o strict_maxclient=1 #vmo -p -o strict_maxperm=0

2.1.2. Verificando os usuários criados

2.2.3. Modificação para restricted tunable strict_maxperm

Alterando strict_maxperm para 0 no 
No Próximo boot o arquivo strict_maxperm estará alteradopara 0

Warning: a restricted tunable has been modified

AIX 5.3:#/usr/sbin/chdev -l sys0 -a ncargs='128'
Alterando maxuproc: #lsattr -E -l sys0 -a maxuproc #/usr/sbin/chdev -l sys0 -a maxuproc = 16384 sys0 changed

2.2.4. Mudando NTP

NTP não é necessário para 11gR2 uma vez que temos o serviço de cluster de sincronização de tempo (CTSD), mas se você estiver usando NTP você precisará usá-lo com opção â-xâ.

Verificação: ps -ef |grep ntps

Se ele não tem opção -x siga os passos abaixo:

· A. Abra o arquivo /etc/rc.tcpip, e localize a seguinte linha: start /usr/sbin/xntpd "$src_running"

· B. Altere a linha para o seguinte: start /usr/sbin/xntpd "$src_running" "-x"

· C. Salve o arquivo.

2.3. Execute o  rootpre.sh

#./rootpre.sh

./rootpre.sh  saída será registrado no /tmp/rootpre.out_10-05-30.05: 58:36

Salvando os arquivos originais em /etc/ora_save_10-05-30.05: 58:36 ….

Copiando extensão novo kernel para /etc …

Carregando o kernel de extensão /etc

2.4. Preparação da rede

Configurando a rede:

/etc/hosts
10.220.19.160 node1
10.220.19.148 node2
10.220.19.161 node1-vip
10.220.19.149 node2-vip
10.220.52.160 node1-ic
10.220.52.149 node2-ic

NOTA: Neste momento (antes de começar a instalação, mas depois de configurar o /etc/hosts e DNS para SCAN)

· Devemos ser capazes de dar ping node1, node2, node1-ic, node2-ic

· Não devemos ser capazes de executar dar ping node1-vip, node2-vip, scan-vip

· Devemos ser capazes de resolver os IPs (usando DNS ou o arquivo hosts) para: node1-vip, node2-vip, scan-vip

O endereço SCAN cluster deve ser configurado através do DNS para resolver a 3 endereços IP. para configurar os SCAN IPs no DNS siga a Nota:1107295.1 : ‘How to Configure the DNS Server for SCAN VIP on Linux for 11gR2 GI installation’

2.5. Preparação do Cliente

Aqui estamos usando o cliente de VNC, vVocê também pode usar outro software x-terminal.

Baixar os pacotes vnc*. Rpm. Instale o RPM em AIX5L? usando o comando: rpm-Uhv * vnc

Inicie: vncserver -geometry 1024x800

Utilize o usuário root: xhost + (remotehost)

3. Prepare o storage compartilhado para Oracle RAC

 

Esta seção descreve como preparar o storage compartilhado para Oracle RAC.

Cada nó em um cluster exige discos externos compartilhados para armazenar os arquivos do Oracle Clusterware (Oracle Cluster Registry and voting disk) e de dados do banco de dados Oracle. Para garantir a alta disponibilidade dos arquivos do Oracle Clusterware no ASM, você precisa ter pelo menos 2 GB de espaço em disco para arquivos Oracle Clusterware em três grupos de falha distintos, com pelo menos três discos físicos. Cada disco tem de ter pelo menos uma 1GB de capacidade para assegurar que há espaço suficiente para criar os arquivos do Clusterware. Use as seguintes diretrizes para identificar dispositivos de disco adequados:

•Todos os dispositivos em um grupo automático de disco de armazenamento administração deve ser do mesmo tamanho e têm as mesmas características de desempenho.

•Um grupo de discos não deve conter mais do que uma partição de um dispositivo único disco físico.

•Usar volumes lógicos como um dispositivo em um grupo de discos ASM não é suportado com o Oracle RAC.

•A conta de usuário com o qual você executar a instalação (Oracle) deve ter permissões de escrita para

criar os arquivos no caminho que você especificar.

No nosso exemplo, já temos o /dev/rhdisk4 disponível em ambos os nós como um raw device.

Emita o seguinte comando em todos os nós:

#chown grid:asmadmin /dev/rhdisk4
#chmod 660 /dev/rhdisk4
#lsattr -E -l hdisk4 | grep reserve_
reserve_policy no_reserve
#chdev -l hdisk4 -a [ reserve_lock=no | reserve_policy=no_reserve ]

reserve_policy é para Storage AIX, reserve_lock é para EMC e outro storage. Você precisa mudar a

opção de reserva em cada dispositivo de storage que será utilizado no ASM

# /usr/sbin/chdev -l hdisk4 -a pv=clear

Você deve fazer isso antes de colocar qualquer disco em um diskgroup ASM. Depois de colocar esse hdiskX em um

diskgroup, executando este comando em qualquer nó irá causar uma corrupção dos discos ASM. para mais detalhes.veja Referência Oracle Support Note: 750.016,1: ‘Corrective Action for Diskgroup with Disks Having PVIDs’.

Neste ponto podemos usar /dev/rhdisk4 para o nosso diskgroup ASM que irá conter o OCR e Voting Disk ou os

arquivos de dados. Posteriormente, trataremos de como usar esse arquivo para criar um diskgroup utilizando o Assistente de Configuração do ASM (ASMCA).

4. Instalação do Oracle Grid Infrastructure

 

4.1. Instalação básica do Oracle Grid Infrastructure (sem GNS e IPMI)

Como o usuário grid (proprietário do software Grid Infrastructure) execute os comandos abaixo para iniciar o OUI

NOTA:Certifique-se de executar o instalador como o proprietário (owner) desse software, o único método suportado para alterar o owner do software é reinstalar.

#su - grid
$export DISPLAY=localhost:1.0
$./runInstaller_

Instalação do Grid Infrastructure Passo 1:


Instalação do Grid
Infrastructure Passo 2:

Instalação do Grid
Infrastructure Passo 3:



Instalação do Grid Infrastructure Passo 4:

Ação: Durante esta etapa, é
preciso introduzir o nome da SCAN, que neste momento, nós podemos ‘pesquisa’,
mas ainda não podemos usar o ping.

Abaixo documentações Oracle de
exemplo de  configuração de DNS para SCAN.

ExtNote:887522.1: ’11gR2 Grid Infrastructure Single Client Access Name (SCAN) Explained’

ExtNote:1107295.1 :’How to Configure the DNS Server for SCAN VIP on Linux for 11gR2 GI installation’

Como pode ser visto aqui, a definição de GNS foi muito simples e não pode ser configurado a partir desta tela.

DHCP e DNS deve ser configurado corretamente antes de configurar GNS nesta etapa.

Para um exemplo de como configurar o DHCP e DNS para GNS,verifique My A Oracle ExtNote Apoio: 946.452,1: ‘DNS e DHCP Exemplo de configuração para GNS  Grid Infrastructure’

Instalação do Grid Infrastructure
Passo 5:

Ação: Neste passo vamos configurar o uso da interface para o IG. Embora seja possível configurar múltiplas interfaces para interconexão na tela, configurando várias interfaces para esse propósito somente será permitido o uso do balanceamento de carga, não de failover.

Instalação do Grid Infrastructure
Passo 6:



Instalação do Grid Infrastructure
Passo 7:



Instalação do Grid Infrastructure
Passo 8

Ação: Aqui nós designaremos os
raw devices para serem utilizadas para o grupo de discos (diskgroup) do ASM
“Dados”. Só podemos criar um grupo de discos aqui e o OCR e o disco
de votação serão criados neste grupo de discos (diskgroup). Podemos criar grupo
de discos (diskgroup) adicionais depois que IG esteja totalmente instalado e
configurado.

:



Instalação do Grid Infrastructure
Passo 9



Instalação do Grid Infrastructure
Passo 10

Nota: Para o nosso exemplo de
instalação estamos usando os grupos mais complexos. Você pode configurar seus
grupos de S.O. como simples ou complexos dependendo
dos requisitos individuais de negócio.



Instalação do Grid Infrastructure
Passo 11

Nota: A localização de software
Oracle não pode ser colocado sobre o ORACLE_BASE



Instalação do Grid Infrastructure
Passo 12



Instalação do Grid Infrastructure
Passo 13

Ignore a mensagem de warning:

Ação: Para saber onde está explicado o porque esse IZ necessário pode ser ignorado Veja My Oracle Support ExtNote:1083353.1: ’11gR2 OS Requirements APAR Check Failed on AIX 6.1′



Instalação do Grid Infrastructure
Passo 14



Instalação do Grid Infrastructure
Passo 15



Instalação do Grid Infrastructure
Passo 16

Ação: Neste ponto, devemos deixar o OUI rodando e o root.sh deve ser executado em cada nó (um nó por vez).

Antes de executar root.sh, é aconselhável apagar o diretório que contém arquivos de soquete fictícios.

Quaisquer arquivos socket perdidos fará o script root.sh falhar.

 

#rm -rf /tmp/.oracle/



Instalação do Grid Infrastructure
Passo 17

Ação: Após root.sh ter sido executado com sucesso em cada nó de cluster clique em avançar (next).



Instalação do Grid Infrastructure
Passo 18

Neste ponto, a instalação do Oracle Grid Infrastructure está completa.



4,2. Detalhando a saida do script “root.sh”.

#$ORACLE_BASE/oraInventory/orainstRoot.sh
Changing permissions of/haclu/app/11.2.0/oraInventory.
Adding read,write permissions for group.
Removing read,write,execute permissions for world.
Changing groupname of/haclu/app/11.2.0/oraInventory to oinstall.
The execution of the script is complete.

# ./root.sh
Running Oracle 11g root.sh script...
The following environment variables are set as:
ORACLE_OWNER= grid
ORACLE_HOME= /haclu/app/11.2.0/grid
Enter the full pathname of the local bin directory: [/usr/local/bin]:
The file "dbhome" already exists in /usr/local/bin. Overwrite it? (y/n) [n]: y
Copying dbhome to /usr/local/bin ...
The file "oraenv" already exists in /usr/local/bin. Overwrite it? (y/n) [n]: y
Copying oraenv to /usr/local/bin ...
The file "coraenv" already exists in /usr/local/bin. Overwrite it? (y/n) [n]: y
Copying coraenv to /usr/local/bin ...
Entries will be added to the /etc/oratab file as needed by
Database Configuration Assistant when a database is created
Finished running generic part of root.sh script.
Now product-specific root actions will be performed.
2010-05-29 23:58:14: Parsing the host name
2010-05-29 23:58:14: Checking for super user privileges
2010-05-29 23:58:14: User has super user privileges
Using configuration parameter file: /haclu/app/11.2.0/grid/crs/install/crsconfig_params
User grid has the required capabilities to run CSSD in realtime mode
LOCAL ADD MODE
Creating OCR keys for user 'root', privgrp 'system'..
Operation successful.
Adding daemon to inittab
CRS-4123: Oracle High Availability Services has been started.
ohasd is starting
CRS-2672: Attempting to start 'ora.gipcd' on 'node1'
CRS-2672: Attempting to start 'ora.mdnsd' on 'node1'
CRS-2676: Start of 'ora.gipcd' on 'node1' succeeded
CRS-2676: Start of 'ora.mdnsd' on 'node1' succeeded
CRS-2672: Attempting to start 'ora.gpnpd' on 'node1'
CRS-2676: Start of 'ora.gpnpd' on 'node1' succeeded
CRS-2672: Attempting to start 'ora.cssdmonitor' on 'node1'
CRS-2676: Start of 'ora.cssdmonitor' on 'node1' succeeded
CRS-2672: Attempting to start 'ora.cssd' on 'node1'
CRS-2672: Attempting to start 'ora.diskmon' on 'node1'
CRS-2676: Start of 'ora.diskmon' on 'node1' succeeded
CRS-2676: Start of 'ora.cssd' on 'node1' succeeded
CRS-2672: Attempting to start 'ora.ctssd' on 'node1'
CRS-2676: Start of 'ora.ctssd' on 'node1' succeeded
ASM created and started successfully.
Diskgroup DATA created successfully.
clscfg: -install mode specified
Successfully accumulated necessary OCR keys.
Creating OCR keys for user 'root', privgrp 'system'..
Operation successful.
CRS-2672: Attempting to start 'ora.crsd' on 'node1'
CRS-2676: Start of 'ora.crsd' on 'node1' succeeded
CRS-4256: Updating the profile
Successful addition of voting disk 9fe9435cb5de4fb3bfb90bf463221f14.
Successfully replaced voting disk group with +DATA.
CRS-4256: Updating the profile
CRS-4266: Voting file(s) successfully replaced
## STATE File Universal Id File Name Disk group
1. ONLINE 9fe9435cb5de4fb3bfb90bf463221f14 (/dev/rhdisk3) [DATA]
Located 1 voting disk(s).
CRS-2673: Attempting to stop 'ora.crsd' on 'node1'
CRS-2677: Stop of 'ora.crsd' on 'node1' succeeded
CRS-2673: Attempting to stop 'ora.asm' on 'node1'
CRS-2677: Stop of 'ora.asm' on 'node1' succeeded
CRS-2673: Attempting to stop 'ora.ctssd' on 'node1'
CRS-2677: Stop of 'ora.ctssd' on 'node1' succeeded
CRS-2673: Attempting to stop 'ora.cssdmonitor' on 'node1'
CRS-2677: Stop of 'ora.cssdmonitor' on 'node1' succeeded
CRS-2673: Attempting to stop 'ora.cssd' on 'node1'
CRS-2677: Stop of 'ora.cssd' on 'node1' succeeded
CRS-2673: Attempting to stop 'ora.gpnpd' on 'node1'
CRS-2677: Stop of 'ora.gpnpd' on 'node1' succeeded
CRS-2673: Attempting to stop 'ora.gipcd' on 'node1'
CRS-2677: Stop of 'ora.gipcd' on 'node1' succeeded
CRS-2673: Attempting to stop 'ora.mdnsd' on 'node1'
CRS-2677: Stop of 'ora.mdnsd' on 'node1' succeeded
CRS-2672: Attempting to start 'ora.mdnsd' on 'node1'
CRS-2676: Start of 'ora.mdnsd' on 'node1' succeeded
CRS-2672: Attempting to start 'ora.gipcd' on 'node1 succeeded

Este é o fim do root.sh no node1. No node2 o root.sh vai fazer coisas semelhantes, masquando verificar que o OCR disco de voto foram configurados ele vai parar o Grid Infrastructure no node1 e reiniciá-lo em ambos os nós. Teste se o Grid Infrastructure está sendo executado conforme o esperado, execute o seguintecomando a partir de $GI_HOME/bin

# crsctl stat res t

Name Type Target State Host
------------------------------------------------------------
ora.DATA.dg ora....up.type ONLINE ONLINE node1
ora....N1.lsnr ora....er.type ONLINE ONLINE node1
ora.asm ora.asm.type ONLINE ONLINE node1
ora....SM1.asm application ONLINE ONLINE node1
ora....lu7.gsd application OFFLINE OFFLINE
ora....lu7.ons application ONLINE ONLINE node1
ora....lu7.vip ora....t1.type ONLINE ONLINE node1
ora....SM2.asm application ONLINE ONLINE node2
ora....lu8.gsd application OFFLINE OFFLINE
ora....lu8.ons application ONLINE ONLINE node2
ora....lu8.vip ora....t1.type ONLINE ONLINE node2
ora.eons ora.eons.type ONLINE ONLINE node1
ora.gsd ora.gsd.type OFFLINE OFFLINE
ora....network ora....rk.type ONLINE ONLINE node1
ora.oc4j ora.oc4j.type OFFLINE OFFLINE
ora.ons ora.ons.type ONLINE ONLINE node1
ora.scan1.vip ora....ip.type ONLINE ONLINE node1

Podemos ver que todos os recursos que são direcionados para “ONLINE” foram de fato colocados on-line.

Volte para a OUI e clique em ‘Next’ isso irá executar um utilitário de verificação de cluster (cluvfy)  para verificar o status do cluster.

5. Aplicando Patches de correção no home do Grid Infrastructure

É muito importante manter atualizado e aplicar os ultimos Patch Set Update (PSU) disponíveis, Patches que são liberados trimestralmente. Siga as instruções incluídas no patch PSU README para saber como aplicar o patch e também use como referência a nota do suporte Oracle: My Oracle Support ExtNote:1082394.1 : ‘11.2.0.X Grid Infrastructure PSU Known Issues.’

6. Instalação do software RDBMS

NOTA: Certifique-se que o instalador seja executado como o proprietário do software, o único método suportado para mudar o proprietário será a reinstalação.

#su – oracle

Você vai notar que nós criamos o usuário oracle e configuramos ssh para o usuário oracle anteriormente, volte ao item

2. seção


2.1.1. se necessário.

$export DISPLAY=localhost:1.0

Para testar se o xclock exibe corretamente, execute: xclock (supondo que o  xhost+ já foi executado pelo usuário root) Como usuário oracle (proprietário do software RDBMS) inicie o instalador executando “runInstaller” a partir da midia ou direto do local onde foram copiados os arquivos de instalação.
$./RunInstaller

· Instalação de Software RDBMS Passo 1:

·Instalação de Software RDBMS Passo 2:

· Instalação de Software RDBMS Passo 3:



· Instalação de Software RDBMS Passo 4:


· Instalação de Software RDBMS Passo 5:

· RDBMS Passo de Instalação de Software 6 – O ORACLE_HOME RDBMS está abaixo ORACLE_BASE:



· Instalação de Software RDBMS Passo 6:



· Instalação de Software RDBMS Passo 7:



· Instalação de SoftwareRDBMS Passo 8:

Note: Reference My Oracle Support
ExtNote:1083353.1 : ’11gR2 OS Requirements APAR CheckFailed on AIX 6.1′ para obter informações sobre ignorar com segurança o IZ necessário.



· Instalação de Software  RDBMS Passo 9:



· Instalação de Software R DBMS Passo 10:



· Instalação de Software RDBMS
Passo 11:

Instalação de Software RDBMS  Passo 12:

Ação: Entrar em uma janela de terminal como usuário root e executar o script root.sh no primeiro nó. Quando terminar fazer o mesmo para todos os outros nós do
cluster.  Quando terminar, clique em ‘OK’

NOTA: root.sh deve serexecutado em um nó de cada vez.

# ./root.sh

Running Oracle 11g root.sh script…    

As seguintes variáveis de  ambiente serão definidas como:

ORACLE_OWNER= oracle

ORACLE_HOME= /haclu/app/11.2.0/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1

Enter the full pathname of the local bin directory: [/usr/local/bin]:

The file “dbhome” already exists in /usr/local/bin.
Overwrite it? (y/n) [n]: y

Copying dbhome to /usr/local/bin …

The file “oraenv” already exists in /usr/local/bin.
Overwrite it? (y/n) [n]: y

Copying oraenv to /usr/local/bin …

The file “coraenv” already exists in /usr/local/bin.
Overwrite it? (y/n) [n]: y

Copying coraenv to /usr/local/bin …

Serão adicionadas linhas no arquivo /etc/oratab conforme necessário

Database Configuration Assistant when a database is created

Finished running generic part of root.sh script.

Now product-specific root actions will be performed.

Finished product-specific root actions.

Neste ponto, instalação e a configuração do 11gR2 Oracle RDBMS está completa.

7. Aplicando patches no home do RDBMS

É muito importante manter atualizado e aplicar os ultimos Patch Set Update (PSU ) disponíveis, Patches que são liberados trimestralmente. Siga as instruções incluídas no patch PSU README para saber como aplicar o patch e também use como referência a nota do suporte Oracle: My Oracle Support ExtNote:854428.1 : ‘Patch Set Updates for Oracle Products’

8. Execute o ASMCA para criar diskgroups

Podemos usar ASMCA para criar mais diskgroups se necessário. Como o usuário grid inicie o Assistante de configuração ASM (ASMCA). Para o nosso exemplo de instalação, vamos usar o mesmo “+DATA” diskgroup que usamos para OCR, para o disco de votação e também para os arquivos de dados. Como mencionado anteriormente, é uma prática recomendada para o Oracle 11gR2 armazenar o OCR e o disco de votação dentro de ASM, para manter as melhores práticas de ASM recomendado não ter mais de 2 diskgroups (área de recuperação flash e área de banco de dados).

Isto significa que o OCR e o disco de votação serão armazenados juntamente com os arquivos de dados relacionados.

Se você estiver utilizando redundância externa para seus diskgroups isso significa que você terá um OCR e um disco de votação.

Se você desejar utilizar a redundância Oracle fornecida para os discos de OCR e votação você pode criar um ASM diskgroup separado (3rd) tendo no mínimo de 2 grupos de falha (total de 3 discos). Esta configuração proporcionaria um OCR (que assume a redundância do diskgroup (espelhado dentro ASM)) e três discos de votação.

O tamanho mínimo dos três discos que compõem este diskgroup redundância normal é de 1 GB cada.

9. Executar DBCA para criar o banco de dados 

Como o usuário oracle iniciar o Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA)

#cd $ORACLE_HOME/bin

#su – oracle

./dbca

· Usando o DBCA para criar banco de dados RAC Passo 1:


· Usando o DBCA para criar banco de dados RAC Passo 2:

Figura



· Usando o DBCA para criar banco de dados RAC Passo 3:

Figura



· Usando o DBCA para criar banco de dados RAC Passo 4:

Figura



· Usando o DBCA para criar banco de dados RAC Passo 5:

Figura



· Usando o DBCA para criar banco de dados RAC Passo 6:

Figura



· Usando o DBCA para criar banco de dados RAC Passo 7 – Escolha o ASM diskgroup:

Figura



· Usando o DBCA para criar banco de dados RAC Passo 8:

Figura



· Usando o DBCA para criar banco de dados RAC Passo 9

Nota: Flash Recovery Area (FRA) é muito importante para backup e recuperação. Nós altamente recomendado ter um diskgroup ASM separado para FRA

Figura



· Usando o DBCA para criar banco de dados RAC Passo 10:

Figura

· Usando o DBCA para criar banco de dados RAC Passo 11:

Figura



· Usando o DBCA para criar banco de dados RAC Passo 12:

Figura



· Usando o DBCA para criar banco de dados RAC Passo 13:

Figura



· Usando o DBCA para criar banco de dados RAC Passo 14:

O banco de dados agora está criado, você poderá ou alterar ou desbloquear suas senhas ou simplesmente clicar em EXIT para terminar a criação do banco de dados.

Figura



· Usando o DBCA para criar banco de dados RAC Passo 15:

Terminado.

Publicado em RAC, TUTORIAL | Marcado com , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 1 comentário

Passo a passo para criar um Dataguard FISICO em RAC 10g R2 com 3 nós

Dataguard FISICO em RAC 10g
R2


CONFIGURAÇÂO
Nossa
Base
de Produção será a BDAP e roda em RAC 10g R2 com
3 nós (cot-db-001,cot-db-002, cot-db-003)
DB_UNIQUE_NAME do
site Primary é BDAP e no Standby Site é
BDCUR
Producção/Primary Site está em
COTIA.
Nos prefixamos DB Aliases com “COT” quando
referenciamos explicitamente para o banco de COTIA
Nosso Standby
Site estará em CURITIBA.
Nos prefixamos DB Aliases com
“CUR” quando referenciamos explicitamente para o banco de
CURITIBA (standby)
Nosso Standby também rodará em
RAC 10g R2 com3 Nós (cur-db-001, cur-db-002,
cur-db-003)
Iremos usar Log Write (LGWR) em modo assincrono para o
transporte de redo.
Qualquer um dos nós no site Standby
podem receber os redo/Archives, porem somente um nó (Nó
1 em nosso caso) ira aplicá-los.
ORACLE_HOME é
/oracle/product/app/10R2/db/
ASM_HOME é
/oracle/product/asm
Clusterware, RDBMS e ASM Software já
estão instalados no Site Standby.


Configurando o Banco primário para
Data Guard- habilite force logging no Banco primário


alter database force logging;


Ajuste Standby para maximizar a
performance.


ALTER DATABASE SET STANDBY DATABASE TO MAXIMIZE
PERFORMANCE;


Configuração dos parâmetros
de inicialização no Banco primário.


alter system set DB_UNIQUE_NAME=’BDAP’
scope=spfile sid=’*';
alter system set
LOG_ARCHIVE_CONFIG=’DG_CONFIG=(BDAP,BDCUR)’ scope=spfile
sid=’*';
alter system set
LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_1=’LOCATION=USE_DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST
VALID_FOR=(ALL_LOGFILES,ALL_ROLES) DB_UNIQUE_NAME=BDAP’ scope=spfile
sid=’*';
alter system set LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_2=’SERVICE=CURBDCUR
VALID_FOR=(ONLINE_LOGFILES,PRIMARY_ROLE) DB_UNIQUE_NAME=BDCUR LGWR
ASYNC=102400 REOPEN=15 MAX_FAILURE=10 NET_TIMEOUT=30 NOAFFIRM
OPTIONAL’ scope=spfile sid=’*';
alter system set
LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_STATE_1=ENABLE scope=spfile sid=’*';
alter system
set LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_STATE_2=DEFER scope=spfile sid=’*';
alter
system set log_archive_format=’arch_%d_%s_%p_%t.arc’ scope=spfile
sid=’*';
alter system set FAL_SERVER=BDCUR1,BDCUR2,BDCUR3
scope=spfile sid=’*';
alter system set FAL_CLIENT=COTBDAP
scope=spfile sid=’*';
alter system set
STANDBY_FILE_MANAGEMENT=AUTO scope=spfile sid=’*';
alter system
set LOG_FILE_NAME_CONVERT='(‘,’)’ scope=spfile sid=’*';
alter
system set service_names=’BDAP’,’COTBDAP’ scope=spfile sid=’*';


Habilitar o broken connection detection
ajustando o parâmetro SQLNET.EXPIRE_TIME para 2 (minutos) no
arquivo de parâmetro SQLNET.ORA em TODOS nós Primários


vi
$ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/sqlnet.ora
SQLNET.EXPIRE_TIME=2


No nó Primario adicionar essas
entradas no tnsnames.ora


vi
$ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/tnsnames.ora
##########################################
#
Data Guard
##########################################
COTBDAP
=
(DESCRIPTION =
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST =
cot-db-001-vip)(PORT = 1521))
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST =
cot-db-002-vip)(PORT = 1521))
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST =
cot-db-003-vip)(PORT =
1521))
(LOAD_BALANCE=ON)
(FAILOVER=ON)
(CONNECT_DATA
=
(SERVER=DEDICATED)
(SERVICE_NAME = BDAP)
(FAILOVER_MODE
=
(TYPE = SELECT)
(METHOD = BASIC)
(RETRIES = 20)
(DELAY
= 60)
)
)
)
)
BDAP1 =
(DESCRIPTION =
(ADDRESS =
(PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = cot-db-001-vip)(PORT = 1521))
(CONNECT_DATA
=
(SERVER=DEDICATED)
(SERVICE_NAME = BDAP)
(INSTANCE_NAME =
BDAP1)
)
)


BDAP2 =
(DESCRIPTION =
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL
= TCP)(HOST = cot-db-002-vip)(PORT = 1521))
(CONNECT_DATA
=
(SERVER=DEDICATED)
(SERVICE_NAME = BDAP)
(INSTANCE_NAME =
BDAP2)
)
)


BDAP3 =
(DESCRIPTION =
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL
= TCP)(HOST = cot-db-003-vip)(PORT = 1521))
(CONNECT_DATA
=
(SERVER=DEDICATED)
(SERVICE_NAME = BDAP)
(INSTANCE_NAME =
BDAP3)
)
)


BDCUR =
(DESCRIPTION =
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL
= TCP)(HOST = cur-db-001-vip)(PORT = 1521))
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL =
TCP)(HOST = cur-db-002-vip)(PORT = 1521))
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL =
TCP)(HOST = cur-db-003-vip)(PORT =
1521))
(LOAD_BALANCE=ON)
(FAILOVER=ON)
(CONNECT_DATA
=
(SERVER=DEDICATED)
(SERVICE_NAME = BDAP)
(FAILOVER_MODE
=
(TYPE = SELECT)
(METHOD = BASIC)
(RETRIES = 20)
(DELAY
= 60)
)
)
)
BDCUR1 =
(DESCRIPTION =
(ADDRESS =
(PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = cur-db-002-vip)(PORT = 1521))
(CONNECT_DATA
=
(SERVICE_NAME = BDAP)
(INSTANCE_NAME = BDAP1)
)
)


BDCUR2 =
(DESCRIPTION =
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL
= TCP)(HOST = cur-db-002-vip)(PORT = 1521))
(CONNECT_DATA
=
(SERVICE_NAME = BDAP)
(INSTANCE_NAME = BDAP2)
)
)
BDCUR3
=
(DESCRIPTION =
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST =
cur-db-003-vip)(PORT = 1521))
(CONNECT_DATA =
(SERVICE_NAME =
BDAP)
(INSTANCE_NAME = BDAP3)
)
)
Atualizar os
arquivos listener.ora nos 3 nós Primários


vi
$ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/listener.ora


PROD NÓ COT-DB-001
=========


SID_LIST_LISTENER_ cot-db-001 =
(SID_LIST
=
(SID_DESC =
(SID_NAME = PLSExtProc)
(ORACLE_HOME =
/oracle/product/10.2.0/db)
(PROGRAM = extproc)
)
(SID_DESC
=
(GLOBAL_DBNAME = COTBDAP_DGMGRL)
(ORACLE_HOME =
/oracle/product/10.2.0/db)
(SID_NAME = BDAP1)
)
(SID_DESC
=
(SID_NAME = +ASM1)
(ORACLE_HOME =
/oracle/product/asm)
(GLOBAL_DBNAME = +ASM1)
)
)


PROD NÓ COT-DB-002
=========


SID_LIST_LISTENER_ cot-db-002 =
(SID_LIST
=
(SID_DESC =
(SID_NAME = PLSExtProc)
(ORACLE_HOME =
/oracle/product/10.2.0/db)
(PROGRAM = extproc)
)
(SID_DESC
=
(GLOBAL_DBNAME = COTBDAP_DGMGRL)
(ORACLE_HOME =
/oracle/product/10.2.0/db)
(SID_NAME = BDAP2)
)
(SID_DESC
=
(SID_NAME = +ASM2)
(ORACLE_HOME =
/oracle/product/asm)
(GLOBAL_DBNAME = +ASM2)
)
)


PROD NÓ COT-DB-003
===========


SID_LIST_LISTENER_ cot-db-003 =
(SID_LIST
=
(SID_DESC =
(SID_NAME = PLSExtProc)
(ORACLE_HOME =
/oracle/product/10.2.0/db)
(PROGRAM = extproc)
)
(SID_DESC
=
(GLOBAL_DBNAME = COTBDAP_DGMGRL)
(ORACLE_HOME =
/oracle/product/10.2.0/db)
(SID_NAME = BDAP3)
)
(SID_DESC
=
(SID_NAME = +ASM3)
(ORACLE_HOME =
/oracle/product/asm)
(GLOBAL_DBNAME = +ASM3)
)
)
Recarregue
os listeners em todos os nós


PROD NÓ
COT-DB-001
=========
lsnrctl
reload LISTENER_ cot-db-001


PROD NÓ
COT-DB-002
=========
lsnrctl
reload LISTENER_ cot-db-002


PROD NÓ
COT-DB-003
=========
lsnrctl
reload LISTENER_ cot-db-003


Reiniciar o banco de dados


Criar os standby redo logs para suportar o papel
de standby. Os standby redo logs devem ser do mesmo tamanho que os
online logs do banco primário.


O numero recomendado de standby redo logs é:
(número máximo de logfiles para cada thread +1) *
máximo # de threads


No nosso caso o número total de Redo logs
groups = (4 + 1) * 3 =15


ALTER DATABASE ADD STANDBY LOGFILE THREAD 1
GROUP
13 SIZE 512000K,
GROUP 14 SIZE 512000K,
GROUP 15 SIZE
512000K,
GROUP 16 SIZE 512000K,
GROUP 17 SIZE 512000K;
ALTER
DATABASE ADD STANDBY LOGFILE THREAD 2
GROUP 18 SIZE 512000K,
GROUP
19 SIZE 512000K,
GROUP 20 SIZE 512000K,
GROUP 21 SIZE
512000K,
GROUP 22 SIZE 512000K;
ALTER DATABASE ADD STANDBY
LOGFILE THREAD 3
GROUP 23 SIZE 512000K,
GROUP 24 SIZE
512000K,
GROUP 25 SIZE 512000K,
GROUP 26 SIZE 512000K,
GROUP
27 SIZE 512000K;


Pegue os arquivos e faça um Backup, no nó
primário, faça um RMAN backup do banco primário
coloque os backup pieces no diretório de staging. Por exemplo:


/oracle/dba/local/bin/rman_backup.ksh BDAP 0
rman
connect catalog rman/password@rman_catalog
backup
current controlfile for standby;
EOF


No nó primário, identifique
o diretório corrente do rman e do backup dos archives.


/DADOS/FULL/rman e /DADOS/FULL/archbkp


Crie exatamente o mesmo caminho em uma das
maquinas do standby database:


mkdir -p /DADOS/FULL/rman
mkdir -p
/DADOS/FULL/archbkp


OBS: (no meu caso é uma area de NFS
que já estava criada)


No nó primário, conecte no
banco primário e crie um PFILE pelo SPFILE no diretório
de staging. Por exemplo:


CREATE
PFILE=’/ora01/orabkup/BDAP/rman/BDAP/20090825/initBDAP1.ora’ FROM
SPFILE;


Copie o arquivo de password para a área
de staging.


cp $ORACLE_HOME/dbs/orapwBDAP1
/ora01/orabkup/BDAP/rman/BDAP/20090825


Coloque a copia do tnsnames.ora, e
sqlnet.ora diretório de staging
.


cp $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/tnsnames.ora
/ora01/orabkup/BDAP/rman/BDAP/20090825
cp
$ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/sqlnet.ora
/ora01/orabkup/BDAP/rman/BDAP/20090825


Copie o conteúdo do diretório
de staging do nó primário do RAC para o do diretório
de staging que foi criado nó de standby.


scp /ora01/orabkup/BDAP/rman/BDAP/20090825/*
oracle@cur-db-001:/ora01/orabkup/BDAP/rman/BDAP/20090825


Configure o Standby
Copie o tnsnames.ora, e o
sqlnet.ora do diretorio de staging no host standby para o diretório
$ORACLE_HOME/network/admin


cd /ora01/orabkup/BDAP/rman/BDAP/20090825/
cp
tnsnames.ora $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/


Modifique o tnsnames.ora


vi $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/tnsnames.ora


substitua os host names
(cot-db-00,cur-db-00) para os DR host names, Copie o tnsnames.ora to
mofificado para os outros nós no Standby


scp $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/tnsnames.ora
oracle@cur-db-002:
/oracle/product/10.2.0/db_1/network/admin/
scp
$ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/tnsnames.ora oracle@cur-db-003:
/oracle/product/10.2.0/db_1/network/admin/


Certifique-se que as seguintes linhas
sejam adicionadas no linstener.ora on de todos os nós.


vi $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/listener.ora


DR NÓ
CUR-DB-001
================
SID_LIST_LISTENER_cur-db-001
=
(SID_LIST =
(SID_DESC =
(SID_NAME =
PLSExtProc)
(ORACLE_HOME = /oracle/product/10.2.0/db)
(PROGRAM
= extproc))
(SID_DESC =
(GLOBAL_DBNAME =
BDCUR_DGMGRL)
(ORACLE_HOME = /oracle/product/10.2.0/db)
(SID_NAME
= BDAP1))
(SID_DESC =
(SID_NAME = +ASM1)
(ORACLE_HOME =
/oracle/product/asm)
(GLOBAL_DBNAME = +ASM1)
)
)


DR NÓ CUR-DB-002
==================


SID_LIST_LISTENER_cur-db-002 =
(SID_LIST
=
(SID_DESC =
(SID_NAME = PLSExtProc)
(ORACLE_HOME =
/oracle/product/10.2.0/db)
(PROGRAM = extproc))
(SID_DESC
=
(GLOBAL_DBNAME = BDCUR_DGMGRL)
(ORACLE_HOME =
/oracle/product/10.2.0/db)
(SID_NAME = BDAP2))
(SID_DESC
=
(SID_NAME = +ASM2)
(ORACLE_HOME =
/oracle/product/asm)
(GLOBAL_DBNAME = +ASM2)))


DR NÓ
CUR-DB-003
=================
SID_LIST_LISTENER_cur_db_003
=
(SID_LIST =
(SID_DESC =
(SID_NAME =
PLSExtProc)
(ORACLE_HOME = /oracle/product/10.2.0/db)
(PROGRAM
= extproc))
(SID_DESC =
(GLOBAL_DBNAME =
BDCUR_DGMGRL)
(ORACLE_HOME = /oracle/product/10.2.0/db)
(SID_NAME
= BDAP3))
(SID_DESC =
(SID_NAME = +ASM3)
(ORACLE_HOME =
/oracle/product/asm)
(GLOBAL_DBNAME = +ASM3)
)
)


Recarregue todos os listeners em todos os nós


DR NÓ CUR-DB-001
=================
lsnrctl
reload LISTENER_cur-db-001


DR NÓ CUR-DB-002
=================
lsnrctl
reload LISTENER_cur-db-002


DR NÓ CUR-DB-003
=================
lsnrctl
reload LISTENER_cur-db-003


Crie o Banco e as instancias
Standby, Copie o arquivo de Password da staging area para o
ORACLE_HOME/dbs directory


cd
/ora01/orabkup/BDAP/rman/BDAP/20090825/
cp orapwBDAP1
$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/
cd $ORACLE_HOME/dbs
scp orapwBDAP1
oracle@cur-db-002:/oracle/product/10.2.0/db/dbs/orapwBDAP2
scp
orapwBDAP1 oracle@cur-db-003:/oracle/product/10.2.0/db/dbs/orapwBDAP3



Copie
o Pfile da staging area para o ORACLE_HOME/dbs directory


cd
/ora01/orabkup/BDAP/rman/BDAP/20090825/
cp initBDAP1.ora
$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/


Modifique o pfile com os
seguintes parâmetros:


vi
$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/initBDAP1.ora
*.audit_trail=’NONE’
*.db_create_file_dest=’+DG1′
*.db_unique_name=’BDCUR’
*.fal_client=’CURBDCUR’
*.fal_server=’BDAP1′,’BDAP2′,’BDAP3′
*.log_archive_config=’DG_CONFIG=(BDCUR,COTBDAP)’
alter
system set log_archive_format=’arch_%d_%s_%p_%t’.arc’ scope=spfile
sid=’*';
*.log_archive_dest_1=’LOCATION=USE_DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST
VALID_FOR=(ALL_LOGFILES,ALL_ROLES)
DB_UNIQUE_NAME=BDCUR’
*.control_files=’+DG1/BDAP/control01.ctl’,’+DG2/BDAP/control02.ctl’
*.log_archive_dest_2=’SERVICE=COTBDAP
VALID_FOR=(ONLINE_LOGFILES,PRIMARY_ROLE) DB_UNIQUE_NAME=BDAP LGWR
ASYNC=102400 REOPEN=15 MAX_FAILURE=10 NET_TIMEOUT=30 NOAFFIRM
OPTIONAL’
*.service_names=’BDAP’,’BDCUR’


Conecte no ASM instance do
standby host, e crie um diretório para o database


alter diskgroup DG1 add directory
‘+DG1/BDCUR';
alter diskgroup DG2 add directory ‘+DG2/BDCUR';


Conecte no standby database
em um standby host, com o standby em estado IDLE, e crie o SPFILE no
standby disk group DG_DATA1


CREATE
SPFILE=’+DG1/BDCUR/spfileBDAP.ora’ FROM
PFILE=’?/dbs/initBDAP1.ora';
No
diretorio $ORACLE_HOME/dbs de cada standby host, crie um PFILE que
seja nomeado initoracle_sid.ora e contenha um apontamento para o
SPFILE.


NO DR NÓ
CUR-DB-001
======================
cd $ORACLE_HOME/dbs
cp
initBDAP1.ora initBDAP1.ora.full
echo
"SPFILE=’+DG1/BDCUR/spfileBDAP.ora’" > initBDAP1.ora
scp
initBDAP1.ora
oracle@cur-db-002:/oracle/product/10.2.0/db/dbs/initBDAP2.ora
scp
initBDAP1.ora
oracle@cur-db-003:/oracle/product/10.2.0/db/dbs/initBDAP3.ora


Certifique-se que todos
caminhos existam, caso contrário crie.


mkdir -p
/oracle/admin/BDAP/adump
mkdir /oracle/admin/BDAP/bdump
mkdir
/oracle/admin/BDAP/cdump
mkdir /oracle/admin/BDAP/udump
mkdir
/oracle/admin/BDAP/pfile
mkdir /oracle/admin/BDAP/create
mkdir
/oracle/admin/BDAP/scripts
mkdir /oracle/admin/BDAP/hdump


Configure o ambiente para
suportar o Standby Database edite o /etc/oratab para BDAP no
dataguard


NO DR NÓ
CUR-DB-001:
————-
BDAP1:/oracle/product/app/10R2/db/:Y


NO DR NÓ
CUR-DB-002:
————-
BDAP2:/oracle/product/app/10R2/db/:Y


NO DR NÓ
CUR-DB-003:
————-
BDAP3:/oracle/product/app/10R2/db/:Y


Tenha certesa que as
variaveis ORACLE_HOME e ORACLE_SID estejam declaradas.


Depois de ajustar todas
variáveis de ambiente em cada standby host, como ORACLE_SID,
ORACLE_HOME, e PATH, inicie a instancia do banco standby no standby
host que tem o diretório (criado anteriormente) de staging.


On DR Node A


============


STARTUP NOMOUNT


Restaure o backup do primary
usando o comando duplicate do rman.


rman
connect target
sys/password@COTBDAP

connect
auxiliary /
connect catalog rman/password@rman_catalog

run
{
allocate auxiliary channel disk1 device type disk;
allocate
auxiliary channel disk2 device type disk;
duplicate target
database for standby;
}
Conecte no
standby database, e crie os standby redo logs para suportar o papel
de standby.
Os standby redo logs devem ser do mesmo tamanho que os
primary database online logs.


select thread#, group# from
V$STANDBY_LOG order by 1,2;


Se já existir apague
usando o seguinte comando :


ALTER DATABASE drop logfile group 13,
group 14, group 15, group 16, group 17, group 18, group 19, group 20,
group 21, group 22, group 23, group 24, group 25, group 26, group
27;
The recommended number of standby redo logs is:


(maximum number of logfiles for each
thread +1) * maximo # de threads


No meu caso numero total de grupos de Redo logs =
(4 + 1) * 3 = 15


ALTER DATABASE ADD STANDBY LOGFILE
THREAD 1
GROUP 13 SIZE 512000K,
GROUP 14 SIZE 512000K,
GROUP
15 SIZE 512000K,
GROUP 16 SIZE 512000K,
GROUP 17 SIZE
512000K;
ALTER DATABASE ADD STANDBY LOGFILE THREAD 2
GROUP 18
SIZE 512000K,
GROUP 19 SIZE 512000K,
GROUP 20 SIZE
512000K,
GROUP 21 SIZE 512000K,
GROUP 22 SIZE 512000K;
ALTER
DATABASE ADD STANDBY LOGFILE THREAD 3
GROUP 23 SIZE 512000K,
GROUP
24 SIZE 512000K,
GROUP 25 SIZE 512000K,
GROUP 26 SIZE
512000K,
GROUP 27 SIZE 512000K;


Inicie enviando o Redo para o
standby database No PRIMARY node


alter system set
log_archive_dest_state_2=enable scope=both sid=’*';


Inicie o database recovery
session no standby system


ALTER DATABASE RECOVER MANAGED
STANDBY DATABASE USING CURRENT LOGFILE DISCONNECT;


Configure o CRS


srvctl remove database -d BDAP
srvctl
remove instance -d BDAP -i BDAP1
srvctl remove instance -d BDAP -i
BDAP2
srvctl remove instance -d BDAP -i BDAP3


srvctl add database -d BDAP -o
/oracle/product/app/10R2/db -r PHYSICAL_STANDBY -s mount -y
AUTOMATIC
srvctl add instance -d BDAP -i BDAP1 -n
cur-db-001
srvctl add instance -d BDAP -i BDAP2 -n
cur-db-002
srvctl add instance -d BDAP -i BDAP3 -n cur-db-003


srvctl add asm -n cur-db-001 -i ASM1
-o /oracle/product/asm
srvctl add asm -n cur-db-002 -i ASM2 -o
/oracle/product/asm
srvctl add asm -n cur-db-003 -i ASM3 -o
/oracle/product/asm



srvctl remove asm -n cur-db-001
-i asm1
srvctl remove asm -n cur-db-002 -i asm2
srvctl remove
asm -n cur-db-003 -i asm3


Reconfigure os agentes


/grid/agent/agent10g/bin/agentca -d
-n BDCUR -c cur-db-001,cur-db-002,cur-db-003


/grid/agent10g/agent10g/bin/agentca
-d -n BDAP -c cot-db-001,cot-db-002,cot-db-003


/grid/agent10g/agent10g/bin/agentca
-d -n COTBDAP -c cot-db-001,cot-db-002,cot-db-003


Para Stop/Restart
DG
==================
Para
Cancelar o recovery
*********************************************
NO
Standby
——
ALTER
DATABASE RECOVER MANAGED STANDBY DATABASE CANCEL;


NA PRODUÇÃO
——-
alter
system set log_archive_dest_state_2=defer scope=both sid=’*';


Para abriro Standby en
Readonly Mode
*********************************************
ALTER
DATABASE OPEN;


para por o Database
novamente em recovery
mode

*********************************************

Envie o REDO
da PRODUÇÂO para
o standby database


alter system set
log_archive_dest_state_2=enable scope=both sid=’*';


Inicie
o database recovery no standby


ALTER DATABASE RECOVER MANAGED
STANDBY DATABASE USING CURRENT LOGFILE DISCONNECT;


=======================================================================
=======================================================================

Scripts
para verificar o dataguard e saber se os archives estão sendo
aplicados/recebidos
=======================================================================
=======================================================================



SELECT SEQUENCE#, FIRST_TIME,
NEXT_TIME FROM V$ARCHIVED_LOG ORDER BY SEQUENCE#;


SELECT THREAD#,SEQUENCE#,APPLIED,
REGISTRAR FROM V$ARCHIVED_LOG ORDER BY 1,2;


SELECT PROCESS, STATUS, THREAD#,
SEQUENCE#, BLOCK#, BLOCKS FROM V$MANAGED_STANDBY;


SELECT ARCHIVED_THREAD#,
ARCHIVED_SEQ#, APPLIED_THREAD#, APPLIED_SEQ# FROM
V$ARCHIVE_DEST_STATUS;


SELECT REGISTRAR, CREATOR, THREAD#,
SEQUENCE#, FIRST_CHANGE#, NEXT_CHANGE# FROM V$ARCHIVED_LOG;


SELECT MESSAGE FROM
V$DATAGUARD_STATUS;


SELECT THREAD#, SEQUENCE#,
FIRST_CHANGE#, NEXT_CHANGE# FROM V$LOG_HISTORY;


===============================================
Verifica
informações arquivadas nos archive logs do Primary
System
===============================================
passo
1 Determine o numero de sequencia do current archived redo log file.


SELECT THREAD#, SEQUENCE#, ARCHIVED,
STATUS FROM V$LOG WHERE STATUS=’CURRENT';


Passo 2 Determine o archived
redo log file mais recente.


SELECT MAX(SEQUENCE#), THREAD# FROM
V$ARCHIVED_LOG GROUP BY THREAD#;


Passo 3 Determine o archived
redo log file mais recente em cada destino.


set lines 200
col destination
format a35
SELECT INST_ID, DESTINATION, STATUS, ARCHIVED_THREAD#,
ARCHIVED_SEQ# FROM gV$ARCHIVE_DEST_STATUS WHERE STATUS <>
‘DEFERRED’ AND STATUS <> ‘INACTIVE';
set lines 80


Passo 4 Descubra se os
archived redo log files foram recebidos.


SELECT LOCAL.THREAD#, LOCAL.SEQUENCE#
FROM(SELECT THREAD#, SEQUENCE# FROM V$ARCHIVED_LOG WHERE
DEST_ID=1)LOCAL WHERELOCAL.SEQUENCE# NOT IN(SELECT SEQUENCE# FROM
V$ARCHIVED_LOG WHERE DEST_ID=2 ANDTHREAD# = LOCAL.THREAD#);


Verifique se tem GAP nos
Archives
============================
No
standby execute



SELECT * FROM V$ARCHIVE_GAP;



SCRIPTS ÚTEIS PARA DATAGUARD


conn sys/@BANCO2
as sysdba
select max(SEQUENCE#) from V$ARCHIVED_LOG;


conn sys@BANCO1 as
sysdba
SELECT SEQUENCE# sequencia, APPLIED
aplicado,
to_char(COMPLETION_TIME, ‘dd/mm/yy hh24:mi’)
dia_hora
FROM V$ARCHIVED_LOG
where SEQUENCE# in (select
max(SEQUENCE#) from
V$ARCHIVED_LOG);
—————————————————————————————–


SELECT SEQUENCE#,
to_char(FIRST_TIME, ‘dd-mm-yy
hh24:mi’)||’———‘||
to_char(NEXT_TIME, ‘dd-mm-yy
hh24:mi’)
FROM V$ARCHIVED_LOG
ORDER BY SEQUENCE#;


—————————————————————————————–
SELECT
SEQUENCE#,THREAD#,APPLIED FROM V$ARCHIVED_LOG ORDER BY
SEQUENCE#;
SELECT SEQUENCE#,APPLIED,to_char(COMPLETION_TIME,
‘dd/mm/yy hh24:mi’) FROM V$ARCHIVED_LOG ORDER BY SEQUENCE#


—————————————————————————————-

COLUMN
destination FORMAT A35 WRAP
column process format a7
column
archiver format a8
column ID format 99
select dest_id
"ID",destination,status,target,
archiver,schedule,process,mountid
from
v$archive_dest;


—————————————————————————————–
select
dest_id,
process,
transmit_mode,
async_blocks,
net_timeout,
delay_mins,
reopen_secs,
register,binding
from
v$archive_dest;


—————————————————————————————–
column
error format a55 tru
select dest_id,status,error
from
v$archive_dest;


—————————————————————————————–
column
message format a80
select message, timestamp
from
v$dataguard_status
where severity in (‘Error’,’Fatal’)
order by
timestamp;


—————————————————————————————–
select
ads.dest_id,
max(sequence#) "Current
Sequence",
max(log_sequence) "Last
Archived",
max(applied_seq#) "Last Sequence
Applied"
from v$archived_log al,
v$archive_dest
ad,
v$archive_dest_status ads
where ad.dest_id=al.dest_id
and
al.dest_id=ads.dest_id
group by ads.dest_id;


—————————————————————————————–
column
SRL_Count format 99
column SRL_Active format 99
select
dest_id,database_mode,recovery_mode,
protection_mode,
standby_logfile_count
"SRL_COUNT",
standby_logfile_active
"SRL_ACTIVE",
archived_seq#, applied_seq#
from
v$archive_dest_status;


—————————————————————————————–
select
process,
status,
client_process,
sequence#,
block#,active_agents,
known_agents
from
v$managed_standby;


—————————————————————————————–
select
group#,sequence#,bytes from v$standby_log;


—————————————————————————————–
select
group#,thread#,sequence#,bytes,archived,status from v$log;


—————————————————————————————–
select
* from
V$ARCHIVE_GAP
—————————————————————————————–


When the DBA queries the V$ARCHIVE_GAP view and
has a record returned, this indicates a gap in the archived redo logs
as illustrated below and may require manual intervention by the
DBA:
select * from v$archive_gap;


THREAD# LOW_SEQUENCE# HIGH_SEQUENCE#
——–
————– ————–
1 24 28








DICAS DE OUTROS BLOGS



From the output above, the physical standby
database is currently missing logs from sequence 24 to sequence 28
for thread 1. Note that this view only returns the next gap that is
currently blocking managed recovery from continuing. After resolving
the identified gap and starting managed recovery, the DBA should
query the V$ARCHIVE_GAP view again on the physical standby database
to determine the next (if any) gap sequence. This process should be
repeated until there are no more gaps. After identifying a gap (as
shown above), the DBA will need to query the primary database to
locate the archived redo logs on the primary database. The following
query assumes the local archive destination on the primary database
is LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_1:


SELECT name
FROM v$archived_log
WHERE
thread# = 1
AND dest_id = 1
AND sequence# BETWEEN 24 and 28;


*****************************************************************************
col
logfl for a150
SELECT ‘ALTER DATABASE REGISTER PHYSICAL LOGFILE
‘||””||name||””||';’ as logfl
FROM v$archived_log
WHERE
thread# = &inst
AND dest_id = 1
AND sequence# BETWEEN
&numero1 and
&numero2;
*****************************************************************************


– NAME

————————————–

/u02/oraarchive/TESTDB/arch_t1_s24.dbf

/u02/oraarchive/TESTDB/arch_t1_s25.dbf

/u02/oraarchive/TESTDB/arch_t1_s26.dbf

/u02/oraarchive/TESTDB/arch_t1_s27.dbf

/u02/oraarchive/TESTDB/arch_t1_s28.dbf


Copy the above redo log files to the physical
standby database and register them using the ALTER DATABASE REGISTER
LOGFILE …
SQL statement on the physical standby database
… For example:


ALTER DATABASE REGISTER LOGFILE
‘/u02/oraarchive/TESTDB/arch_t1_s24.dbf';
ALTER DATABASE REGISTER
LOGFILE ‘/u02/oraarchive/TESTDB/arch_t1_s25.dbf';
ALTER DATABASE
REGISTER LOGFILE ‘/u02/oraarchive/TESTDB/arch_t1_s26.dbf';
ALTER
DATABASE REGISTER LOGFILE
‘/u02/oraarchive/TESTDB/arch_t1_s27.dbf';
ALTER DATABASE REGISTER
LOGFILE ‘/u02/oraarchive/TESTDB/arch_t1_s28.dbf';


After the redo logs have been registered on the
physical standby database, the DBA can restart the managed recovery
operations. For example, to put the physical standby database into
automatic recovery managed mode:
alter database recover managed
standby database disconnect from session;
select process,status
from v$managed_standby;




REAL-TIME APPLY


Use LGWR instead of ARCH to transport logs. Have
to cancel current managed recovery and then alter database recover
managed standby database using current logfile disconnect. (If not
cancelled, that command throws ORA-01153: an incompatible media
recovery is active.)
v$archive_dest_status.recovery_mode=’MANAGED
REAL TIME APPLY’.




LOGS NOT SHIPPED TO STANDBY


In emergency, copy missing logs to standby and
recover standby database, manually applying logs. When you run out of
logs and get "ORA-00308: cannot open archived log", alter
database recover managed standby database. Check Oracle Net and
log_archive_dest_state_n (must be ‘enable’, not ‘defer’). If no delay
is allowed in shipping logs, add NODELAY to log_archive_dest_n on
primary (but preferably on both so it stays like this after
switchover).
















Publicado em DATAGUARD, PLSQL SCRIPTS, TUTORIAL | Marcado com , , , | Deixe um comentário

Diagrama completo da arquitetura do ORACLE 11G em PDF

Segue abaixo um diagrama da arquitetura completa do ORACLE 11G em PDF.

Diagrama de estrutura do ORACLE 11G

Publicado em DATAGUARD, PLSQL SCRIPTS, TUTORIAL | Marcado com , , , , , , , , , , , | Deixe um comentário

Como alterar o período de Retenção do AWR.

Bom dia, hoje o post vai ser curtinho. vou colocar umas dicas de AWR.

Abaixo descrevo o procedimento para alterar e posteriormente verificar o período de retenção das AWR.

MUDAR PERÍODO DE RETENÇÃO NO AWR

BEGIN
   DBMS_WORKLOAD_REPOSITORY.modify_snapshot_settings(
     retention => 518400,       -- Minutes (= 1 ano). Current value retained if NULL.
     interval  => 30);          -- Minutes. Current value retained if NULL.
 END;
 /

QUERY PARA VERIFICAR O PERIODO DE RETENÇÃO DO AWR

select
       extract( day from snap_interval) *24*60+
       extract( hour from snap_interval) *60+
       extract( minute from snap_interval ) "Snapshot Interval",
       extract( day from retention) *24*60+
       extract( hour from retention) *60+
       extract( minute from retention ) "Retention Interval"
from dba_hist_wr_control;
Publicado em AWR, PERFORMANCE, TUTORIAL | Marcado com , , , , , , , | Deixe um comentário